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Unformatted text preview: n electropositive element releases electrons. Electronegativity Increases from left to right in periodic table. Decreases going down a group. Fluorine is the most electronegative element. Francium is the least electronegative element. Pauling Electronegativity Scale 4.0 is maximum (F) Second period of periodic table Li Be B C N O F 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Pauling Electronegativity Scale Li Be B C N O F 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.5 3.0 Metals, Nonmetals and Metaloids Metals, Metals Metaloids Nonmetals Properties of Metals and Nonmetals Metals ionization energy electronegativity low low Nonmetals high high low poor no gas or solid (except for bromine) gain electrons to form anions luster high conductivity of heat and electricity good malleable/ductile phase at ordinary conditions ion formation yes solid (except for mercury) lose electrons to form cations Variation in Chemical Properties Variation Reaction of Group 1A Elements with O2 4Li(s) + O2(g) 2Na(s) + O2(g) K(s) + O2(g) 2 Li2O(s) (lithium oxide) Na2O2(s) (sodium peroxide) KO2 (s) (potassium superoxide) Since these oxides are all ionic compounds, their stability depends on how strongly the cations and anions attract one another (or the lattice energy of the solid). Lithium te...
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2009 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Taracarpenter during the Spring '08 term at UMBC.

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