Outline14 - 1 Outline 14 Brain Damage and Neural-Degenerative Disorders Chapter 10 required readings for this outline 10.1"Cerebrovascular

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Outline 14 Brain Damage and Neural-Degenerative Disorders Chapter 10 required readings for this outline: - 10.1 "Cerebrovascular Disease" - 10.2 "Alzheimer's Disease" - Sections 10.4-10.5 I. Overview of Neural Effects Brain Damage: A. Degenerative Effects of Brain Damage Degeneration —death of neurons and/or their processes Axonal degeneration- Wallerian degeneration transneuronal degeneration Neuron death ( aside--necrotic versus apoptotic cell death ) Exictotoxicity - death or injury to cells due to excess excitatory activity This is typicaly found in neurons receiving glutamatergic input and is linked to excessively heightened calcium levels. Diaschesis- Disruption of the activity of brain regions that receive input from a damaged region. 2 B. Regenerative Effects of Brain Damage Neurogenesis-birth of new neurons Reactive Axonal Sprouting and Reactive Synaptogenesis- growth of new axonal processes and formation of new synapses in response to denervation. Dendritic Restructurin g-loss and regrowth of dendritic processes, e.g., of neurons that have lost a portion of their input. Typically coincides with reactive synaptogenesis. “Growth Factors”- a class of substances that promote the survival and process outgrowth of neurons. These are produced by glia cells and the neurons themselves in response to injury. Neurotrophic factors- neuronal survival promoting factors Neurotropic factors- neuron outgrowth promoting factors II. Stroke- A. What is “Stroke”? Injury to the brain resulting from interruption of blood flow either by blockage or rupturing of arteries 1. Ischemic strokes - brain deprivation of oxygen and glucose resulting from blockage of arteries—about 87% of all strokes. 3 The interruption of blood supply may last only a few minutes but this initiates a sequence of changes that may continue to damage the brain for hours (and possibly longer, e.g., from brain swelling) for hours (and possibly longer, e....
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course PSY 308 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Outline14 - 1 Outline 14 Brain Damage and Neural-Degenerative Disorders Chapter 10 required readings for this outline 10.1"Cerebrovascular

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