ch 20 Prokarotes,Protis&Algae

ch 20 Prokarotes,Protis&Algae - Ch 20 Prokarotes,...

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Ch 20     prokaryotes - bacteria- no membrane bound organelles, circular DNA, cell walls, reproduce by  fission (Table 28.1) 2 kingdoms/Domains - based on shapes, cell walls, motility, nutritional requirements, metabolic  needs, endospores.   - Eubacteria -bacteria most common   - Archaebacteria- Archaea  Extreme environments and anaerobic conditions, more closely  related to eukaryotes   Autotrophs  - self feeders photoautotrophs - self feeders use light from sun heterotrophs  – Get food from plants and photoautotrophs or other animals chemoautotrophs -self feeders-use CO 2 , H + , sulfur, Fe 2+ ,N, methane CH 3 photoheteroautotrophs and get glucose from host.   Size and Shapes Fig. 28.5 most are less than 10mm's usually 1 - 10, a bit larger then Viruses at about 0.2 mm 3 shapes - use of gram-stain can separate by cell wall components   coccus    bacillus       spirilla        positive -purple=cell wall of peptidoglycan round      rod             twisted       negative- red=no cell wall   motitity 1-many flagellum                
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Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species Kingdoms:   Archaebacteria      (3 groups)  Methanogens-(methane makers) CH4- anaerobic and found nearly everywhere  anaerobic Extreme halophiles-(salt lovers)-most are aerobic and found in salt lakes, oceans,  salty ponds Extreme thermophiles-(heat lovers)-found in acidic soils, hot springs, coal mine  wastes can live at temperatures up to 110 C and use H 2 SO 4  for ATP   Eubacteria     -    400 different genus’s -have fatty acids in cell membranes with peptidoglycan (a sugar coat) Photoautotrophs 1.Cynobacteria(blue-green algae) O releasing 2.Anabaena-convert N gas to NH3 ammonia cyanobacteria 3.Green Bacteria- use H 2 SO 4 or H+ gas   Chemoautotrophs-most cycle N-->NH4 Nitrite Chemoheteroautotrophs-most are in this group- decomposers and human helpers phylums- EX: Lactobacillus, Azospirillum, Rhizobium, E-Coli     Pathogenic Eubacteria phylums:  E-Coli  – normal flora and severe diarrhea Clostridium       botulinum      -  produce deadly toxin botulism C.      tetani      -tetanus Borrelia       burgdofeni     - Lyme disease   Viruses
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-nonliving   -cannot reproduce on its own-need a host -it injects its DNA-RNA into the hosts DNA causing its actions. -its genes mutate very fast so that the immune system won't recognize and fight it.
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2009 for the course BISC 120 taught by Professor Webb,wetzer,? during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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ch 20 Prokarotes,Protis&Algae - Ch 20 Prokarotes,...

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