090508 - Microglial only in the CNS MACRO ANATOMY(brain and...

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Microglial: only in the CNS MACRO ANATOMY (brain and spinal cord) 1 st step is to understand the directional terms when talking about the brain; these are based on animals w/ a flat neural-axis, in humans our neural-axis goes up Directional description: rostral: towards your nose; caudal: towards the tail or towards the feet; more used in body directions, sometimes in brain More common in the brain: anterior (toward the front) and posterior (towards the back) Posterior: in the human brain front and feet whereas in the alligator it is towards its tail; basically means sort of the bottom Dorsal and Ventral: Dolphin has dorsal fins, dorsal is along the back; human is along your back; ventral is the front part Also directional in the brain and in the body: directions to go outwards vs inwards, so when you’re talking about something towards the body or something moving towards the center of the body: medial; if talking about a specific nuclei more medial than the caudate nucleus (for ex), so it is closer to the middle Lateral: closer to the outside, so heading away from the middle Superior/Inferior: superior is toward the top of the brain; inferior is bottom of the brain Reading scientific papers: anterior cingulate cortex or the medial dorsal nucleus of a thalamus (for ex), so a lot of the parts of the brain are described using these terms In the brain: 3 different planes that people generally talk about when looking at the brain horizontal, sagittal plane (medial, sagittal slice, could cut towards the side of the brain and it is still a sagittal slice), coronal plane (someone wearing a crown) Different ways of slicing the brain allows you to see different components of the brain better We cover 2 general areas: (a) CNS which consists of the brain and spinal cord and the b) PNS which consists of everything outside the CNS CNS – LATERAL BRAIN Outside of the brain; major divisions and sulci of brain; brain is made up of all these folds, anything that extrudes/bumps are called gyri (gyrus); the parts where it sinks in is the sulci (sulcus) When we discuss the brain, we often talk about things in terms of the central sulcus which is a big sulcus that divides 2 obvious lobes Precentral which is anterior of the central sulcus and the postcentral gyrus which is posterior of the central sulcus Another word for sulcus: fissure; if really big sulcus fissure; Sylvian fissure which is divides the temporal lobe Divide into 4 main areas/lobes: frontal lobe is basically everything in front/anterior to the central sulcus The frontal lobe is responsible for higher-level cognitive thinking takes place, what really makes us human: decision making, inhibition of impulses Parietal lobe – posterior to central sulcus but doesn’t extend all the way back because another lobe in the way; 1 the most general things that it does: an area where lots of info comes together (association areas), communication b/w different regions of the brain
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This note was uploaded on 02/14/2009 for the course PSY 308 taught by Professor Jones during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas.

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090508 - Microglial only in the CNS MACRO ANATOMY(brain and...

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