Handout - Lecture_6_-_sensorimotor

Handout - Lecture_6_-_sensorimotor - Sensorimotor systems...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 9/30/09 Sensorimotor systems
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9/30/09 Principles Motor output is guided by sensory input Eyes, vestibular system, skin, joints, receptors in muscles, all monitor movement One exception Ballistic movements- brief, all or none, high- speed movements Saccades- rapid eye movements from one fixation point to another
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9/30/09 Principles Motor output is guided by sensory input Learning changes the nature and locus of sensorimotor control With practice, movement becomes unconscious (automatic) and integrated Examples: playing an instrument, dancing, typing The more you do something the more automatic it becomes.
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9/30/09 Principles Motor output is guided by sensory input Learning changes the nature and locus of sensorimotor control The neural basis of movement is hierarchical Functional segregation: different units have different functions.
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9/30/09 Types of muscles Smooth – organs, GI tract, iris of the eye Cardiac – heart Skeletal – striated muscle attached to the skeleton (via tendons) and used to move the skeleton
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9/30/09 How muscles induce movement Fast vs. slow muscle Fast : relax/contract quickly; can generate great force; fatigue quickly Slow : relax/contract slowly; can only generate modest force; resistant to fatigue (endurance) Muscles vary in the composition of slow/ fast (the muscles are made up of a
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9/30/09 How muscles induce movement Antagonistic muscles are muscles that produce opposite movements at a joint. For example, the bicep muscle flexes the arm, and the triceps extends it. Flexor – muscles that flexes or raises Extensor – muscle that extends or straightens
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9/30/09 How muscles induce movement Like other tissues of the body, a muscle is made up of many individual cells, or muscle fibers. The muscle cells are controlled by motor neurons that synapse with a muscle cell at the neuromuscular junction. When a motor neuron releases acetylcholine the muscle fiber is depolarized, which opens calcium channels.
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9/30/09 Neural control Neuromuscular junction Motor unit Comprised of 1 motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it innervates (can be just a few to many) Motor neuron uses acetylcholine as transmitter Receptors Nicotinic
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