Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Studying Behaviour...

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Chapter 2- Studying Behaviour Scientifically -curiosit, skepticism and open mindedness are driving forces behind scientific inquiry. HYPOTHESIS:  A tentative explanation or prediction about some phenomenon THEORY:  a set of formal statementsthat explains how and why certain events are related to  one another. Theories arte broader than hypotheses, and in psychology theories typically  specify lawful relations between certain behaviours and their causes. -Theory development is the strongest test of scientific understanding because good theories  generate and integrated network of predictions. A good thoery has several characteristics. -Even if a theory is supported by many successful predictions, it is never regarded as an  absolute truth. It is always possible that some future observation will contradict it, or a newer  theory could take its place. -Prediction based on understanding has important advantages: it satisfies our curiosity,  increases knowledge, and generates principles that can be applied to new situations yet to be  experienced. VARIABLE:  a characteristic that can differ. -many variables represent non-material concepts such as memory, personability, intelligence,  stress, learning and motivation. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION:  defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to  produce or measure it. -self report measures ask people to report on their own knowledge, beleifs, feelings,  experiences, or behaviour. Information can be gathered in several ways such as interviews,  questionaires, etc. ARCHIVAL MEASURES:  Gathered information about someones overt behaviour.  DESCRIPTIVE METHODS:  involve recording observations or surveys. CORRELATIONAL METHODS:  involve measuring the strength of an association between two  or more events.
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EXPERIMENTAL METHODS:  involve manipulations to establish cause and effect relationships  between two or more events.
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