Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 GENOTYPE: The specific genetic make...

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Chapter 4 GENOTYPE:  The specific genetic make up of the individual. PHENOTYPE:  the observable characteristics produced by that genetic endowment -A genotype is like the commands of a computer program. Phenotypes can be affected by other  genes and their environment. CHROMOSOME:  a tightly coiled molecule of DNA that is partly covered by protein. The DNA  portion of the chromosome carries genes. GENES:  Hereditary blueprint units. -every cell in the human body has 46 chromosomes, the only exception is the sex cell which has  23. -Genes affect our body’s development and functioning through one general mechanism: Gene  code for the prduction of proteins. -Genotypes and phenotypes are not identical because some genes are dominant and some are  recessive. DOMINANT:  the particular characteristics that it controls will be displayed. RECESSIVE:  the characteristics will not show up unless the partner gene inherited from the  partner gene inherited from the other parent is also recessive. POLYGENIC TRANSMISSION:  complicates the straightforward picture that would occur if all  characteristics were determined by one pair of genes. Also magnifies the number of possible  variations in a trait that can occur. RECOMBINANT DNA PROCEDURES:  researches use certain enzymes to cut the long  threadlike molecules of genetic DNA into peices, combine them with DNA from another  organism, and insert them into a hostorganism such as bacterium. -Recent gene modification research by psychologists has focused on processes such as  learning, memory, emotion and motivation. One procedure done with animals is to alter a  specific gene in a way that prevents it from carrying out its function.  GENE KNOCKOUT:  prcedure because that particular function of the gene is eliminated.
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-gene-modification techniques may one day enable us to alter genes that contribute to  psychological disorders such as schizophrenia. Genetic engineering gives humans potential 
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This note was uploaded on 02/15/2009 for the course MIT 027 taught by Professor Farber during the Spring '08 term at UWO.

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Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 GENOTYPE: The specific genetic make...

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