Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders 22 of the...

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Chapter 13: Psychological Disorders 22% of the population suffers from a diagnosable mental disorder Almost half N. Americans between the ages of 15-54 will experience a psychological disorder at some time in their lives Psychological disorders are the second leading cause of disability, after heart disease Medications for such disorders are among the most frequently prescribed drugs in N.A 1 teen commits suicide every 90 seconds Every year more than a million students withdraw from university because of emotional problems ¼ N.A’s will have a substance abuse disorder in their lifetime Historical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders: At various times, psychological disorders have been viewed as the work of demons, as physical diseases, as the result of psychological conflicts, as learned maladaptive behaviours, and as the product of the ways in which we perceive our world The Demonological View: Some religions viewed insane people as being possessed by devils or in contact with darkness Many people with psychological disorders were once viewed as witches and were killed for it More than 100,000 “witches” were hunted down and killed in the 16 th and 17 th centuries Early Biological Views: Hippocrates was the first to suggest that mental illnesses are diseases and they were not possessed He believed that the site of the illness was the brain, the organ of the mind General paresis – a disorder characterized in its advanced stages by mental deterioration caused by syphilis. This was the 1 st demonstration that a psychological disorder was linked to physiology Psychological Perspectives: Neuroses – disorders such as obsessions, phobias, and depression Psychosis – diseases like schizophrenia Behavioural perspective – disorders are learned responses through classical and operant conditioning, and modeling Cognitive perspective – emphasize the role of thoughts and perceptions about oneself and their environment Humanistic perspective – abnormality is the result of environmental forces that frustrate or pervert people’s inherent self-actualization tendencies and search for meaning in life. Mood (Affective) Disorders: Mood disorders – emotion-based disorders that involve depression and mania (excessive excitement). They are the most frequently experienced disorders Depression: In clinical depression, the frequency, intensity, and duration of depressive symptoms are out of proportion to the person’s life situation. Major depression – leaves people unable to function effectively in their lives Dysthymia – less intense form of depression which has less dramatic effects on personal and occupational functioning. But, it’s a more chronic and long-lasting form of misery, occurring for years on end with intervals of normal mood that never last more than a few
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weeks or months Depression has three types of symptoms: cognitive symptoms, motivational symptoms, and
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Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders 22 of the...

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