HDFS 102 CH 4 NOTES

HDFS 102 CH 4 NOTES - Major Theories for Understanding...

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1 Chapter 4: Major Theories for Understanding Human Development Major Theories for Understanding Human Development The Theory of Evolution : – Darwin emphasized the adaptive value of behavior and physical characteristics to specific environments Natural selection - certain species were selected by nature to survive in particular parts of the world because they had characteristics that fit with, or were adapted to, their surroundings Major Theories for Understanding Human Development The Theory of Evolution (cont.): – Natural selection has 3 underlying characteristics: • Variation • Genetic inheritance • Selection Fitness , or reproductive success: varies among members of a species - the passage of genes from one generation to the next Inclusive Fitness : fitness not only determined by an individual’s success in passing genes along, but by promoting the survival and reproductive success of others who carry the genes Major Theories for Understanding Human Development Evolutionary Psychology: – Long-term historical origins of behavior – With each generation, the human genome evolves; whether they are passed on to subsequent generations depends on whether they increase fitness – Account for common patterns of behavior in the pressures on survival and reproduction for human beings during the prehistoric period Major Theories for Understanding Human Development Psychosexual Theory: – Children move through a series of stages where they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations – Healthy personality development is determined by how parents manage their child’s early sexual and aggressive drives – How they resolve these conflicts determines their ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety Major Theories for Understanding Human Development Domains of Conscience in Psychosexual Theory: – Freud - all behaviors are motivated Conscious processes are the mental processes that individuals are aware of Preconscious processes are the mental processes that we are not aware of, but can be called into mental awareness Unconscious processes are wishes, needs, and fantasies that influence behavior which we are not mentally aware of
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2 Major Theories for Understanding Human Development • Portions of Personality in Psychosexual Theory: Id - present at birth, represents biological needs and desires - requires immediate gratification Ego - in early infancy, is the conscious, rational part of personality. It is the mediator between the id and the superego Superego represents the values of society and one’s conscience – The relations between the id, ego, and superego determine an individual’s basic personality Major Theories for Understanding Human Development Stages of Development in Psychosexual Theory: –Ora l – Anal – Phallic – Latent – Genital Phallic Stage Child’s pleasure focuses on genitals Latency Stage Child
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course HDFS 102 taught by Professor Whipple during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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HDFS 102 CH 4 NOTES - Major Theories for Understanding...

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