HDFS 102 CH 5 NOTES

HDFS 102 CH 5 NOTES - The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal...

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1 Chapter 5: The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Genetic process: Human life begins as a single cell Nucleus of each cell contains DNA DNA carries genetic information in double- helix Genes are units of hereditary information in each chromosome Human Genome Project mapped the human genome and found that it included only about 30,000 genes The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Genes and Chromosomes as Sources of Genetic Information: Chromosomes - rodlike structures which store and transmit genetic information. – 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human cell, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. – The 23 pairs of chromosomes in each human cell can be distinguished from one another. The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Genes and Chromosomes as Sources of Genetic Information (cont.): – In females, this pair is called XX, in males, it is called XY – The sex of the new organism is determined by whether an X-bearing or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Figure 5.1 Diagram of a Small Part of a DNA Molecule The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development The Laws of Heredity: Alleles : each gene has at least 2 states—one on each chromosome strand in the pair Homozygous : both alleles are the same Heterozygous : alleles are different from each other
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2 The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Genotype, Phenotype, and Influences of Alleles: Genotype : genetic information about a trait Phenotype : observed characteristic (e.g., eye color, hair color) Cumulative relation : when more than one pair of genes influence a trait (e.g., height) Codominance : a pattern of inheritance in which both alleles influence the person’s characteristics Dominance : when one alleles’ characteristics are always observed The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Figure 5.3 Probability of Heterozygous Brown-Eyed Parents Producing Blue-Eyed Offspring The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Sex-Linked Characteristics – Gene for specific characteristic is found on the sex chromosome • Genetic Sources of Individual Differences: – Genetic determinants of the rate of development – Genetic determinants of individual traits – Genetic determinants of abnormal development The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal Development Genetic Technology and Psychosocial Evolution – Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis permit people to make informed decisions about
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course HDFS 102 taught by Professor Whipple during the Spring '08 term at Iowa State.

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HDFS 102 CH 5 NOTES - The Period of Pregnancy and Prenatal...

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