A - 9/22 History of Jazz Louis Armstrong-The First Great...

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9/22 History of Jazz Louis Armstrong—The First Great Soloist in Jazz Louis Armstrong Born 1901, New Orleans “The Battlefield” Wild youth: fights, pistols, reform school Mentor Joe Oliver, cornet Heard blues, marching bands Early Career Worked on riverboats (learned to read music) Chicago 1922: King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band (King Oliver invited him) 2 nd cornet Creole Jazz Band Learns harmonic improvisation—“under” the main melody “Mabel’s Dream” (1923) Lil Hardin Pianist, Fisk University Middle-class, socially ambitious Marries Armstrong Convinces Armstrong to leave Oliver in 1924 “hot soloist” in New York City New York, 1924-1925 With Fletcher Henderson “hot jazz soloist”—solos in dance-band arrangements “classic blues” singers Bessie Smith Chicago, 1926-1929 Theater orchestras Dance bands Plays trumpet Hero of Great Migration Northern—urbane, sophistication Southern—“down-home” authenticity Recording Forms “all-star” group: Hot Five Hot Five (also Hot Seven) King Oliver veterans: o Johnny Dodds (clarinet) o Baby Dodds (drums) o Kid Ory (trombone) o Lil Hardin Armstrong (piano)
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New Orleans Jazz: collective improvisation Modern cabaret style: soloing Armstrong as vocalist Rough, guttural timbre Scat singing (nonsense syllables) Earl Hines Stride pianist, Pittsburgh Like Armstrong: experiments in his solos “Weather Bird” (1928)—duo: trumpet, piano o Experimental, risky o “ghosting” notes o “octave piano” o Abandoning stride o Swinging, flexible rhythm o “mistakes” and “saves” o Ending “West End Blues” (1928) o LA and his Hot Seven o Brilliant 12-bar blues Armstrong’s Influence Coleman Hawkins Follows Armstrong as soloist “One Hour” (1929) 9/25 History of Jazz White Musicians Black Musicians Music: lucrative Musicians—middle class professionals (better than doctors and lawyers) White Musicians For some (e.g. recent immigrants): music=professional advancement For others: music=rebellion , deviance Jazz outside middle class values Bix Beiderbecke (cornet) Davenport, Iowa German-American, middle-class Dropped out from society Joined world of jazz Other White Musicians Frankie Trumbauer, saxophone o “Singing the Blues” Jack Teagarden, trombone Swing Gentlemen Benny Goodman
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Glen Miller Artie Shaw Swing Generation 1920s: jazz enthusiasts (outside) 1930s: swing bandleaders (inside) Armstrong, 1930s 1930: Moves from Chicago to New York Breakthrough “Ain’t Misbehavin’” Big-bands: singer, trumpet Peak of influence As an entertainer: works within stereotypes o “Shine” 1947 o Collapse of big bands o Back to New Orleans-style jazz o Jack Teagarden, Earl Hines Armstrong, 1940s-1960s Loses black audience: “old fashioned” Out of touch with civil rights generation
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This note was uploaded on 04/20/2008 for the course MUSI 212 taught by Professor Deveaux during the Fall '06 term at UVA.

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A - 9/22 History of Jazz Louis Armstrong-The First Great...

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