developmental psych notes

developmental psych notes - 9/2/08 Learning Perspective...

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9/2/08 Learning Perspective Albert Bandura emphasized children's efforts to understand and learn through reinforcement punishment observational theory wrote book in 1997- Self Efficacy: The Exercise of Control presented his Theory of Self-Efficacy- and its applications to fields like life-course development, education, health, psychopathology, athletics, business, and international affairs lectured on topics such as escaping homelessness, slowing population growth, transgerssive behavior, mass communication, substance abuse, and terrorism explored manner which people morally disengage when they perpetrate inhumanity Cognitive Development Perspective Jean Piaget (1896-1980) believed children create, test, and revise their theories about the world He called children “Little Scientists” believed that children develop their “scientific theory” about the world through a few critical periods born in Neufchatel, Switzerland described dad as “a man of painstaking and critical mind, who dislikes hasty improvised generalizations and is not afraid of starting a fight when he finds historic truth twisted to fit respectable traditions” described his mom as kind but neurotic first publication was a one page article on a albino sparrow-->wrote it at age 10 publications about mollusks-->noticed by doctors studied psychology and philosophy became interested in Psychoanalytic theory as a result of his mom being neurotic used psychiatric interviewing techniques he'd learned at Sorbonne working with mental patients became known as child psychologist even though he never had a degree based much of his study on children by observing his own 3 kids Contextual Perspective Development influenced by immediate as well as more distant environments Lev Vygotsky (1896-1933_ believed that parents convey cultural values of their time and place on their children born into intellectual Russian Jewish family that valued discussion wrote dissertation on Shakespeare's Hamlet In his work, encountered children with congenital defects (blindness, deafness, mental retardation)-->helped them reach full potential developed a cognitive theory constructed a new psychology based on Marxism (this was a time of great social upheaval following Russian Revolution of 1917) thus, Vygotsky developed his theory based on the environment of his time he wanted to change citizens' typical feudal mentality (landlords and serfs) of learned helplessness and alienation to a socialistic mentality of self-directed activity commitment to a larger social unit based on sharing, cooperation, and support in the new Soviet view, each person was responsible for progress of whole society
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the main goal: eliminate massive illiteracy Vygotsky and colleagues constructed ________theory-->humans transform themselves, as well as nature, through labor and tool use
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developmental psych notes - 9/2/08 Learning Perspective...

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