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Study_Guide,_Exam_3.3 200

Study_Guide,_Exam_3.3 200 - Communication200 StudyGuide...

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Communication 200 Study Guide Exam 3 Chapter 6. Verbal Behavior Approaches 1. Define signs and referents. Distinguish between signals and symbols. Provide examples of each. Sign - Represents something (Referent). Referent - The thing or concept represented by the sign. Signals -one to one relationship to reverent Example: A sweating speaker shows nervousness Symbols - No direct relationship to reverent Example: Horse and “Cheval” both refer to same animal Language, the primary means of communication, is symbolic 2. What are the two kinds of meaning? Provide examples of each. Denotation : Literal dictionary meaning Example: Mother- a female parent Connotation : Personal Associations with a word Example: person one- loving, kind, giving, warm, supportive person two- unloving, mean, selfish, cold 3. What is the essential premise of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis? Provide an example. Higher level of thought depend upon language. (reason, ability to argue, etc. all need language to occur) The structure of a language influences the way an environment is perceived. (language comes before environment) Example: “Snow” we have 6 words for snow. Eskimos have 20 words. “Time” Westerners assume time looked at the same everywhere Third Worlds don’t have time Significance: Language shapes the way we see the world and behave. 4. Why is the manner in which questions are phrased important? Describe a
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research study that illustrates this idea. How questions are phrased affects both perceptions and responses. Experiment by Loftus: “THE broken headlight” vs. “A broken headlight” Research has major implications regarding how survey questions should be phrased. 5. Name and give examples of four types of “Powerless” language. Powerless language- indirect qualifications (polite) Powerful language- direct and assertive Verbal Intensifiers - uses words like “so” “quite” “really” “very” etc. “There is nothing wrong with being really, really, really, really, really, ridiculously good looking.” The more you use them, the less powerful what you are saying is. Verbal Qualifiers - “possibly” “perhaps” “maybe” “in my opinion” “In my opinion, you look better if you wear the color red.” May have positive effect in situations where not using a qualifier may be perceived as close minded or pushy Tag Questions - speaker adds a questions at the end of a declarative sentence. It seems insecure and seeking assurance. “It’s a nice day, isn’t it ?” Lengthening of Requests - “please” Although it is more polite, it is also weaker. “Please close the window.” 6. Do males or females use more “Powerless” language? What evidence supports your judgment?
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