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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17: The Chemistry of Acids and Bases Acids or bases that ionize extensively (K>1) are strong Acids or bases that dont ionize extensively (K<1) are weak Brnsted: an acid is any substance that can donate a proton; HF, HCl, HNO3, CH3CO2H, HSO4 Brnsted: a base is a substance that can accept a proton Monoprotic acid: donate one proton Polyprotic acid: capable of donating two or more protons Polyprotic base: accept more than one proton; SO4, PO4, CO3, C2O4 Brnsted amphiprotic: can act as either an acid or base; HPO4, H2O Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: a pair of compounds or ions that differ by the presence of one H+ ion Name Acid 1 Base 2 Conj. base Conj. acid Hydrochloric acid HCl + H O > Cl + H O Nitric acid HNO + H O > NO + H O Hydrogen carbonate HCO + H O <> CO + H O Acetic acid CH CO H + H O <> CH CO + H O Hydrocyanic acid HCN + H O <> CN + H O Hydrogen sulfide H S + H O <> HS + H O Ammonia H O + NH <> OH + NH Carbonate ion H O + CO <> OH + HCO Water H O + H O <> OH + H O Autoionization: two water molecules interact to produce hydronium and hydroxide ions; K= [H O ][ OH ]/[ H O] Kw=[H O ][ OH ]=1.0x10 In a neutral solution [H O ]=[ OH ]=1.0x10 In an acidic solution [H O ]>[ OH ] In a basic solution [H O ]<[ OH ]...
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