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Student_Outline_Unit_4 - Unit IV Animal Structure and...

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Unit IV: Animal Structure and Function Animal Tissues and Organ Systems ***STRUCTURE FITS FUNCTION!! Which are endotherminc? Birds and mammals Which require water forfertlization? Fish and ampgibians anot reptiles, birds or mammals Tissues- community of cells and intercellular substances that are interacting in one or more tasks. (Four types) Animal structure has hierarchy: cellular level tissue level organ level organ system level organism level I. Epithelial (epithelium) Tissue A. Description – sheets that _cover________external surfaces or _line______ the inside of organs/cavities B. Two sides to this tissue 1. Inside cavity or outside surface of skin = Free surface : either in a lumen (like digestive tract) or outside like skin 2. Side attached to a dense mat of extracellular matrix consisting of basement membrane surface (underlying tissue) fibrous proteins and polysaccharides= C. Secretory epithelium= glandular________________ epithelium 1. __exocrine_________ = secretions released onto free surface and carried through ducts/tubes (ex:sweat glands in the skin, sweat produced deep in skin and secreted through ducts on to surface, tears, mucus, oil, milk as well) 2. _endocrine____________ = no ducts, secrete from free surface directly into body fluid/blood (ex: hormones) D. Various structures of epithelium 1. Simple squamous: one layer (simple) ,flattened (squamous) Spaces in between these layers good for diffusion and filtration, type of tissue that things can pass through a. Structure – (see above) 1
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b. Function – diffusion and filtration c. Where? Lining blood vessels, air sacs of the lungs 2. Simple cuboidal a. Structure – one layer of cubed cells b. Function – secretion (glandular) and absorption c. Where? Lining ducts in organs that do a lot of secreting:ovaries, testes, kidney tubules 3. Simple columnar a. Structure – _one layer of cells, TA_______,may be ciliated on free side or have numerous small folds (microvilli) b. Function – secretion (often of mucus) and movement of materials (with cilia) and absorption (with microvilli in intestine) c. Where? Often secret mucus so found in respiratory system , cilia is beating and moving muscus up, digestive tract 4. Stratified squamous a. Structure –many layers of flattened cells b. Function – protection; covers areas of high abrasion c. Where? Skin, esophagus these tissues are in sheets so have 3 types of junctions: tight( water tight seals), adhering( strong connections holding cells together), and gap( communication channels) II. Connective Tissue A. Description – cells that secrete specific protein fibers_________ (ex: collagen and elastin) and ___ground substance ______________ (extracellular matrix composed of modified polysaccharides) what we called the basement before is now ground substance in connective tissue) B. Six types of Connective tissue 2
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1. __ Loose _________ a. Structure – loose fibers and cells in extensive ground substance b. Function- elastic binding and packaging c. Where? Just under the skin, under most epith, tissue 2. __ Dense__________________________ a. Structure – few cells in dense fibers and little ground substance b. Function – support, strength, elasticity c. Where? Within the skin, around organs, and also ligaments and tendons
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