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English manual - Parallelism 1 Parallelism means using the...

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Parallelism 1. Parallelism means “using the same grammatical structure for all items that have the same function.” It can hold sentences together It can add emphasis It can provide a smooth flow to sentences. It satisfies a need for symmetry. 2. Parallelism is used heavily in adages and famous quotations: I came, I saw, I conquered. We shall fight on the beaches. We shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets. We shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender." (Winston Churchill ) I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favor to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them all. (Ecclesiastes, King James Bible) 3. Faulty parallelism occurs when constituents that serve the same function do not share the same category. *Persephone is a woman with a true passion for parsnips, who tries to make them palatable or finding other uses for them. *The production manager was asked to write his report quickly, accurately, and in a detailed manner. 4. Faulty parallelism often occurs with phrases conjoined by a conjunction (and, but, or) or a correlative conjunction (neither/nor, either/or). The correlative conjunctions frequently cause problems with parallelism because the constituent immediately after the first element (“either”) has to be exactly the same category as the constituent after the second element. *That young man is either going to reform or his father will cut him out of his will. 5. Faulty parallelism often occurs in lists after a colon: *The conflict arises for three reasons: Hamlet’s uncertainty, because Claudius has an insecure grip on power, and that the kingdom is threatened by outside forces. 6. Clauses that are conjoined should make use one verb tense or form: *The salesman expected that he would present his product at the meeting, that there would be time for him to show his slide presentation, and that questions would be asked by prospective buyers.
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7. False parallelism occurs when ideas that are not parallel in function (or meaning) are put into seemingly parallel forms: *The bag is available in Halloween orange, fire engine line green, and bright colors. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences 1. Persephone didn’t last long in Mr. Entrecott’s office her long fingernails made accurate keyboarding difficult and her obsession with root vegetables alienated many people. 2. Housing is scarce in Japan apartments are hard to find and very expensive. 3. I knit an orange polyester scarf for my husband, he has never worn it. 4. For vacations, Aubrey preferred the cool quiet of the mountains but Karen likes hot, sunny days on the beach. 5. Fighting the impulse to crawl under her desk, Ariadne looked at the clock, there was a half hour left in the class, more than enough time to deliver her poorly prepared ten-minute presentation.
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