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Unformatted text preview: Exam Name___________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The best defense against bias-based policing is to: 1) _______ A) collect data. B) utilize more patrol officers. C) have defense attorneys in the agency. D) have more weapons. 2) Bittner defined police use of force as the A) "quintessential manifestation of all we abhor in a police state." B) "distribution of non-negotiably coercive remedies." C) "pinnacle of impropriety in a civilized society." D) "epitome of poor police-community relations." 2) _______ 3) Many people believe that the means by which the police can be brutal is: A) representing the "establishment." B) physical. C) verbal. D) All of the above 3) _______ 4) Which of the following is not a controversial drug testing issue? A) Whether or not the testing methods are reliable B) Whether a positive test proves there was on-the-job impairment C) Whether the employee knew before ingesting drugs that he/she would be tested D) Whether testing should be permitted when there is no indication of a drug problem in the workplace 4) _______ 5) Germann referred to persons denying the existence of police brutality as: A) "effete snobs." B) "raging conservatives." C) "Neanderthals." D) "blind imbeciles." 5) _______ 6) Estimates of the number of citizens killed annually by the police range from: A) 200 to 400. B) 300 to 600. C) 600 to 900. D) 100 to 150. 6) _______ 7) The ________ holds that when one commits an act to achieve a good end, and an inevitable but intended effect is negative, then the act might be justified. A) "axiom of unintended results" B) "precept of preplanned performance" C) "principle of intentional corruption" D) "principle of double effect" 7) _______ 8) DWBB stands for: A) Driving while Black or Brown. C) Disturbances with Black Businesses. 8) _______ B) Disproportionate White Black Bias. D) None of the above 9) "The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation" is the definition of: A) police-community relations. B) police accountability. 9) _______ C) character. D) ethics. 10) The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics does not: A) contribute to the professional image of law enforcement. B) threaten that a specific level of performance must be provided by police officers, or a Section 1983 suit will ensue. C) engender self-respect among officers. D) contribute to feelings of mutual respect among police. 10) ______ 11) A major Supreme Court decision concerning drug testing of public employees in the workplace was: A) Scales. B) Trout. C) Peeler. D) Von Raab. 11) ______ 12) Reiss found that lower-class white men were ________ to be brutalized by the police as lowerclass black men. A) as likely B) less likely C) more likely D) seldom in a physical location 12) ______ 13) Ethics usually involves: A) standards of moral conduct and what we call conscience. B) acute nihilism and histrionics. C) self-empowerment and solitude. D) theology and deontology. 13) ______ 14) Which of the following reasons was given by the Supreme Court in support of a police department's grooming standards for its officers? A) To maintain esprit de corps B) Upholding a 1960s precedent C) To make officers readily recognizable D) Both A and C were given. 14) ______ 15) There are both ________ and ________ ethics. A) absolute; relative C) adult; juvenile. 15) ______ B) absolute; conditional D) esoteric; deontological 16) Which of the following prohibits religious discrimination in employment? A) Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII B) Equal Pay Act C) 42 U.S.C. 1983 D) Fair Labor Standards Act 16) ______ 17) Stoddard described eight deviant practices by police, referring to these practices as the: A) "rotten apple" theory. B) "birds of a feather" syndrome. C) "symbolic interaction" theory. D) "blue-coat crime." 17) ______ 18) The Supreme Court restricted police use of deadly force in: A) Tennessee v. Garner. B) U.S. v. Broward. 18) ______ C) King v. Los Angeles. D) King v. United States. 19) ________ ethics is more complicated and can have a multitude of sides, with varying shades of gray. A) Relative B) Conditional C) Esoteric and deontological D) Absolute 19) ______ 20) The issue of ________ has driven a wedge between the police and minorities, many of whom claim to be victims of this practice. A) insensitivity B) probable cause C) biased based policing D) planted evidence 20) ______ 21) Studies of police work have found that patrol officers would often deliberately delay responding to calls for service, especially in cases of ________. A) drive by shootings B) routine traffic stops C) family disturbances D) None of the above 21) ______ 22) The order of severity (from low to high) of disciplinary actions commonly used by agencies would be: A) Letters of reprimand, counseling, documented oral counseling, suspension. B) Documented oral counseling, letters of reprimand, counseling, suspension. C) Suspension, counseling, letters of reprimand, documented oral counseling. D) Counseling, documented oral counseling, letters of reprimand, suspension. 22) ______ 23) The ________ bars anyone including police and military personnel from carrying firearms if they have a misdemeanor conviction for domestic violence. A) Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban B) Regulatory Firearms Ban C) Lautenburg Amendment D) Both A and C 23) ______ 24) Which perspective proposes that the acceptance of minor gratuities begins a process wherein the recipient's integrity is gradually subverted and eventually leads to more serious unethical conduct? A) Slippery slope B) Successive ethics C) Progressive perks D) Conduct unbecoming 24) ______ 25) Historically, instances for which police officers were disciplined for improper sexual conduct generally involved: A) drug use. B) homosexuality. C) adultery. D) Both B and C 25) ______ 26) According to the national survey conducted to examine common scenarios of police misconduct, which of the following scenarios was not considered a major transgression by officers? A) Receiving free meals B) Off-duty operation of an outside security business C) The cover-up of a police drunk-driving accident 26) ______ D) All of the above 27) Police firearms regulations normally address all but which of the following? A) Requirements for the safeguarding of the weapon B) Limitations on when the weapon may be fired C) Regulations concerning how to shoot warning shots D) Guidelines for carrying the weapon while off duty 27) ______ 28) Which of the following is not a justification for having residency requirements for criminal justice employees? A) To live where they are paid by taxpayers to work B) To hear the local gossip C) To be able to respond quickly when emergencies arise D) To know their jurisdiction well 28) ______ 29) All but which one of the following are commonly accepted forms of "moonlighting" for police officers? A) Teaching criminal justice B) Construction work C) Private security D) Both A and C are usually acceptable. 29) ______ 30) Pinkerton National Detective Agency, the first private security contract operation in the United States, used the motto: A) "As Good As The Federal Bureau of Investigation." B) "We never sleep." C) "We Always Get Our Man." D) "We Rival Wells Fargo." 30) ______ 31) The "father of stress research" is A) Dr. Martin Reiser. C) Edward Donovan. 31) ______ B) Fritz Groenning. D) Hans Selye. 32) In this major decision, the court mandated Congress to impose the requirements of the FLSA on state and local governments. A) Garcia v. San Antonio Transit Authority. B) U.S. v. Swanson. C) Morell v. Department of Labor. D) Johnson v. Avery. 32) ______ 33) Major forms of impasse resolution include all but which one of the following? A) Arbitration B) Litigation C) Mediation D) Fact-finding 33) ______ 34) Attitudes expressed by minorities toward the police and their work are frequently ________. A) fabricated B) unfavorable C) laudatory D) favorable 34) ______ 35) Which of the following is an example of a police job action that has been used in the past? 35) ______ A) B) C) D) E) Work speedup Vote of confidence Work stoppage Work slowdown All of the above are examples of such job actions. 36) The statement that "There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime" was made by: A) President Franklin D. Roosevelt. B) Governor Nelson Rockefeller. C) President Woodrow Wilson. D) Governor Calvin Coolidge. 36) ______ 37) ________ is referred to as the criminal justice administrator's worst nightmare come true. A) Fraternal Order of Police (FOPs) B) Overtime C) Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) D) Public Employee Relations Commission (PERC) 37) ______ 38) State statutes now confer upon an employee a/an ________ in his or her position. A) due process waiver B) "at will" stipulation C) right-to-work clause D) property interest 38) ______ 39) State statutes typically identify all but which type of information that must be provided to the accused officer in an internal investigation? A) The officer's rights to representation during the process. B) The officer's requirement to give up certain civil and criminal protections, per Garrity. C) The officer's responsibility to cooperate. D) The rules and procedures concerning the collection of certain types of evidence. 39) ______ 40) ________ is an activity in which employees engage to express their dissatisfaction with a particular person, event, or condition. A) Conflict resolution B) On the job complaining C) Grievance counseling D) Job action 40) ______ 41) A recent survey of women serving as chiefs of police found that ________ of them were in charge of municipal police departments. A) nearly none B) about half C) nearly all D) about 90% 41) ______ 42) Which of the following is not a common provision of state Peace Officer Bill of Rights legislation? A) Right to Representation by counsel B) Financial assistance during suspension from duties. C) Written notice D) Polygraph Examination 42) ______ 43) Which of the following is not a task of private security personnel? A) Response to a substance abuse call B) Maintaining the appearance of parking lots C) Protection of executives and employees D) Alarm monitoring 43) ______ 44) Since 1967, all national commissions on crime and violence have concluded that higher education for police A) results in "no difference." B) helps police to do their jobs better. C) has been woefully inadequate. D) is actually counterproductive. 44) ______ 45) A long-running debate concerning private security personnel is whether or not: A) they should be armed. B) they should use batons. C) they should have marked vehicles. D) they should be uniformed. 45) ______ 46) The first campaign to organize police unions began shortly after: A) the Civil War. B) World War I. C) the Civil Rights movement. D) World War II. 46) ______ 47) Women account for 14.8% of all ________ officers. A) small B) county 47) ______ C) federal D) state 48) Generally, police officers have ________ opportunity for lateral entry into another police agency. A) moderate B) tremendous C) little or no D) promotional 48) ______ 49) Women only make up ________ percent of the police chiefs in the United States. A) 12 B) 5 C) 10 D) 1 49) ______ 50) Why have Iraqi police officers become targets of violence? A) The Iraqi officers began to beat people excessively. B) People believe they are collaborating with U.S. soldiers. C) People didn't like officers' uniforms. D) The Iraqi officers became more strict with enforcing curfew laws. 50) ______ 51) Because of terrorist acts, Northern Ireland police developed A) expertise in torturing terrorists for information. B) a "bunker attitude." C) a very high level of neurological disease. D) political views of terrorists similar to the "Stockholm Syndrome." 51) ______ 52) The Police Service of Northern Ireland recently won prestigious United Kingdom awards for: A) its community policing efforts. B) having the highest percentage of female officers. 52) ______ C) its fortification of jails for holding terrorists. D) its war against terrorists. 53) In 2003 and 2004, thousands of Mexican people protested out of frustration with President Fox because of Mexico's: A) poor economy and political paralysis. B) increased drug trafficking. C) declining tourist industry. D) poor economy. 53) ______ 54) ________ is forbidden in Saudi Arabia. A) Alcohol C) Sex 54) ______ B) Automobile transportation D) Government 55) Since 1922, it has been the task of the ________ to combat terrorism and crime in Northern Ireland. A) Police Service of Northern Ireland (formerly the RUC) B) Irish Regulatory Authority (IRA) C) Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) D) Royal Unified Constables (RUC) 55) ______ 56) Which of the following nations is now considered to be the most dangerous in which to be a police officer? A) China B) Iraq C) Northern Ireland D) Russia 56) ______ 57) Who assumed the job of battling the guerrillas and terrorists in Iraq after Saddam was captured? A) U.S. Military B) Iraqi citizens C) Iraqi police D) The United Nations 57) ______ 58) The Saudi justice system is thoroughly based upon its: A) politics. B) religion. C) operation under apartheid. D) president's whims. 58) ______ 59) Which of the following is one of Mexican President Fox's accomplishments since he came into office? A) The increased economy B) The boost of tourism C) The decreased poverty and cleaner cities D) Cleaning up of corruption and the crack down of Mexico's drug trade 59) ______ 60) Northern Ireland police are more successful in capturing or killing terrorists. A) Republican Underground Conspirators (RUC) B) Republican (IRA) C) Loyalist (Protestant) D) None of the above 60) ______ 61) Generally, the Mexican police are ________, which contributes to their being ________. A) drug addicts; inefficient B) well staffed; professional C) underfunded and understaffed; corrupt D) women; easy on offenders 61) ______ 62) The national police force in China is responsible to: A) the Ministry of Public Security. B) no single individual or entity. C) a panel of national police D) directly to the Prime Minister. commissioners. 62) ______ 63) All of the following are categories of complaint dispositions except: A) substantial evidence B) sustained. C) unfounded. D) exonerated. 63) ______ 64) A factor influencing how much or little graft money a corrupt officer might receive is the: A) assignment of the officer. B) character of the officer. C) rank of the officer. D) All of the above 64) ______ 65) ________ is "a force that is external in nature that causes strain upon the body, both physical and emotional." A) Disillusion B) Depression C) Stress D) Strain 65) ______ 66) Generally, female police officers have ________ turnover rates than males do. A) lower B) higher C) no more D) There are no turnover rates. 66) ______ 67) In-house security services are called ________, while ________ services are outside firms providing these services for a fee. A) proximidistal; cepholacaudal B) proprietary; contract C) internal; external D) contract; proprietary 67) ______ 68) A long-standing controversy concerns the amount of ________ needed by private security personnel. A) discretion B) non-lethal weapons C) legislative support D) formal education and training 68) ______ 69) In comparing accredited and non-accredited police agencies, accredited police agencies: A) have less diverse work forces. B) have higher annual budgets. C) provide more training to their officers D) get more paid holidays. 69) ______ 70) Officer grievances may cover a broad range of issues, including A) hours of work, allowances, retirement. 70) ______ B) C) D) E) salaries, overtime, leave. opportunity for advancement, performance evaluations, workplace conditions. All of the above None of the above 71) Which of the following is true regarding the political situation in Ireland for many decades? A) The IRA could not force the British government to abandon the Protestants of Northern Ireland. B) The British could never stamp out entirely the IRA campaign of bombs and shootings in Ulster and Britain. C) Both A and B are true. D) Neither A or B are true. 71) ______ 72) Activities involving ________ now represent 60 percent of all Interpol message traffic in its home office. A) murder for hire by itinerant assassins B) drug trafficking C) international smuggling of kidnapped women and children for forced prostitution and pornography D) None of the above 72) ______ 73) Recent legislation that has given the Police Service of Northern Ireland expanded powers is the: A) Terrorism Act 2000. B) Protestant-Catholic Unification Law. C) Suppression Act 2003. D) Queen's Bench Act 2004. 73) ______ 74) The "host country" or home of Interpol is: A) Switzerland. C) the United States. 74) ______ B) Austria. D) France. 75) Northern Ireland police are organized into ________ departments and have a ________ officerto-citizen ratio. A) 4; low B) 8; high C) 6; high D) 2; low 75) ______ 76) Islamic law in Saudi Arabia is interpreted more ________ than in any other Islamic country. A) loosely B) liberally C) strictly D) complexly 76) ______ 77) Three major international crime problems are A) political bribery, drug trafficking, black marketing of automatic weapons. B) killing for hire, terrorism, and the slave trade. C) money laundering, kidnapping, and assassinations. D) drug trafficking, terrorism, and money laundering. 77) ______ 78) In the absence of what is seen as a legitimate police force in Northern Ireland, communities turn to ________ for protection. 78) ______ A) paramilitaries B) firefighters C) the RUC D) doctors 79) The most significant implementation of police reform in China was the passage of: A) Police Law 1995. B) Criminal Procedural Law. C) Chinese community policing. D) judicial police. 79) ______ 80) The government of Saudi Arabia can be described as: A) patriarchal. B) corrupt. C) democratic. 80) ______ D) socialist. 81) In Saudi Arabia, criminal legislation is divided into ________ crimes. A) Hudad B) Taazir C) Quesas and Diyya. D) All of the above 81) ______ 82) What happened when it was revealed that the IRA was operating a spy ring within the Northern Ireland government in mid-2003? A) Ireland went to war. B) The Northern Ireland government was suspended. C) Hundreds of people were killed by a suicide bomber in a mall. D) Nothing happened, because the IRA spy ring was ignored. 82) ______ 83) The Mexican police have been known to use "tehuacanazo," which is: A) a type of ombudsman, who can assist jail inmates. B) a legal writ that is very helpful to prison jails. C) a form of torture, using chili powder. D) a type of less-than-lethal weapon for capturing felons. 83) ______ 84) In Saudi Arabia, persons caught with large amounts of narcotics may receive ________ as a penalty. A) a short period of banishment B) death C) the loss of wages for a year D) life imprisonment 84) ______ 85) The wars against terrorism and Iraq had a major affect on U.S.-________ relations. A) Iran B) Saudi C) German D) Ireland 85) ______ 86) Mexican President Vicente Fox planned to reverse a long tradition of corruption in the country's police and military by A) overhaul police forces top to bottom. B) creating a new government commission to investigate past scandals. C) bringing about much greater effort in combating drug trafficking. D) All of the above 86) ______ 87) In the past a favored form of punishment of informers by Irish terrorists has been: A) shooting the victim in the kneecaps. B) bombing his/her residence or vehicle. 87) ______ C) summary execution, with a shotgun. D) tarring and feathering. 88) The national police force in China is known as the: A) Public Security Agency. C) Chinese Special Forces. 88) ______ B) Unified Special Task Force. D) People's Republic Police. 89) "Interpol" stands for: A) International Policing Network. B) Interdiction Police. C) International Criminal Police Organization. D) Police Interceptors. E) None of the above 89) ______ TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 90) The most common form of corruption involves the receipt by police officers of small gratuities or tips. 90) ______ 91) One study found that 75 percent of all officers had not used any racially offensive words. 91) ______ 92) Fewer than ten states adhered to the Common Law fleeing-felon doctrine until the mid-1980s. 92) ______ 93) It is preferred but not mandatory that citizen complaints against police be objectively and aggressively investigated. 93) ______ 94) At its root, ethics is a simple concept, one that easy to define with precision. 94) ______ 95) A basic police function in a democracy is the use of force. 95) ______ 96) No limits exist on the use of force by police. 96) ______ 97) The exercise of force by police can take several forms, ranging from a simple verbal command to deadly force. 97) ______ 98) The answer to the question concerning whether ethics can be taught is both yes and no. 98) ______ 99) The exercise of force by police can be limited to a simple verbal command. 99) ______ 100) African Americans are arrested more often than whites relative to their numbers in the population. 100) _____ 101) Corruption to a great extent is initiated and sustained by the community. 101) _____ 102) The Knapp Commission termed the two primary types of corrupt police officers as "meat-eaters" and the "grass-eaters." 102) _____ 103) The "environmental theory" and the "psychological theory" have been suggested to explain police corruption. 103) _____ 104) Studies now show that the so-called "code of secrecy" actually has little effect on the amount of police corruption. 104) _____ 105) In about two-thirds of the incidents involving force, its application is judged as reasonable. 105) _____ 106) Two important elements of the Hobbs Act of 1970 are extortion and commerce. 106) _____ 107) Police corruption takes two basic forms: "clean" and "internal." 107) _____ 108) Due process is required for discharging public employees. 108) _____ 109) The federal perjury statute and federal capital-gains code, enacted in 1996, assist prosecutors in investigating corruption. 109) _____ 110) The Sacramento Police Department's study of racially biased policing discovered that an officer could rarely identify the race of a driver or passengers in cars before they were actually stopped. 110) _____ 111) Reiss found that 37 percent of the instances of excessive force by police occurred in policecontrolled settings station houses and patrol cars. 111) _____ 112) An officer giving false statements to obtain arrest or search warrants against suspects or known drug dealers is an example of a type I drug corruption. 112) _____ 113) No one inside or outside of law enforcement denies that police brutality exists. 113) _____ 114) Off-duty sexual activity can affect job performance. 114) _____ 115) Police corruption is not limited to monetary gain. 115) _____ 116) Absolute ethics is a concept wherein an issue only has two sides: something is either good or bad, black or white. 116) _____ 117) Police corruption declines during periods of rapid hiring, probably because of the influx of idealistic rookies. 117) _____ 118) Police and prison lieutenants are ineligible for union representation. 118) _____ 119) The unions chief negotiator will normally be a member of the bargaining unit. 119) _____ 120) Computers have generally lessened paperwork for police officers, resulting in far less stress for them. 120) _____ 121) Courts have held that security officers are not bound by Miranda v. Arizona. 121) _____ 122) Officers' demands at the workplace have been reflected in statutes enacted in many states, generally known as the "Peace Officer Bill of Rights." 122) _____ 123) In a sense, law enforcement officers are never "off-duty." 123) _____ 124) Accreditation of a police agency is a simple and cheap process. 124) _____ 125) The 1985 case of City of Houston v. Davis halted Dallas's requirement college coursework for entering police recruits. 125) _____ 126) The private policing field is larger in terms of both personnel and resources than the federal, state, and local forces combined. 126) _____ 127) Female police officers have a much higher turnover rate than male officers. 127) _____ 128) Studies show that, because of low pay, less educated and older persons are generally recruited as security officers. 128) _____ 129) Generally, the larger the city, the fewer the number of female police officers. 129) _____ 130) The percentage of women in federal agencies is lower than the percentage of women in local agen cies. 130) _____ 131) Officers who kill other human beings often experience time distortion, emotional numbing, and feelings of isolation. 131) _____ 132) The security industry and its personnel are usually portrayed in a positive manner. 132) _____ 133) Having no training standards or regulation, private security officers are legally forbidden to be armed. 133) _____ 134) Boston's infamous police strike in 1919 occurred because of the police commissioner's failure to recognize the police union. 134) _____ 135) Police officers today are very reluctant to file a grievance when they feel their rights have been violated. 135) _____ 136) The preferred method for settling officers' grievances is through informal discussion. 136) _____ 137) Forensic science, as practiced in China, is very advanced. 137) _____ 138) Saudi taazir crimes involve acts of murder or intentional injury. 138) _____ 139) The only function of the RUC is combating terrorism; they never respond to other calls for service. 139) _____ 140) The Chinese police enjoy a positive image in the eyes of the public. 140) _____ 141) To become a police officer in China, one only need apply; rigorous entry standards do not exist. 141) _____ 142) Interpol agents literally patrol, in uniform, around the globe. 142) _____ 143) The only weapon used by Northern Ireland terrorists against their victims is bombs. 143) _____ 144) The "cardinal rule" of Interpol is that it concerns itself only with common crime, not with political, racial, or religious matters. 144) _____ 145) The popular television show of the 1970s, "Man From U.N.C.L.E.," was based on real-life exploits of an Interp ol agent. 145) ____ _ 146) The Public Security Agency is China's national police force. 146) _____ 147) The Committee for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice is the religious police in Saudi Arabia. 147) _____ 148) Saudi police are actually very busy, because the strict criminal code results in the commission of many offenses. 148) _____ 149) Vicente Fox's promises of major social and economic reform in Mexico generally did not happen. 149) _____ 150) Many police executives argue that profiling is based not on probabilities but on prejudice. 150) _____ 151) A study in the early 1980's by the RAND Corporation found that there was no evidence of widespread and consistent racial prejudice in the police system. 151) _____ 152) Generally, women are easily accepted into policing. 152) _____ 153) Studies have shown that private security personnel are often recruited among persons with minimal education and training. 153) _____ 154) Presently, about 12 million people are employed in the private security industry. 154) _____ 155) Typically, a security officer's liability is based on some form of negligence or failure to provide adequate security. 155) _____ 156) There are few gangs in Mexico. 156) _____ 157) In Saudi terminology, "chop-chops" means flogging with a cane. 157) _____ 158) Mexico has federal and state prisons only. 158) _____ 159) INTERPOL sometimes issues a "diffusion" electronic dissemination of wanted person an information to agencies in a particular country or area. 159) _____ 160) Many Americans living in Saudi Arabia report that their biggest fear is being found in improper dress. 160) _____ 161) The death sentence is never used in China. 161) _____ 162) In Saudi Arabia, public executions are commonplace. 162) _____ 163) Saudi's diyya crimes are those that are harmful to the public order. 163) _____ 164) For Saudi offenders, the crime of theft, even for the first offense, normally results in the loss of an arm, ear, and leg. 164) _____ 165) The Royal Ulster Constabulary is one of the most heavily armed police organizations in the world. 165) _____ 166) Northern Ireland is described as having a "perfect peace." 166) _____ 167) The ratio of police in Northern Ireland is relatively high about 5.0 officers per 1,000 population. 167) _____ 168) Interpol is the oldest, best known, and probably the only international crime-fighting organization. 168) _____ 169) China has one of the highest crime rates in the world. 169) _____ 170) Paramilitary personnel in Northern Ireland are known to participate in such grotesque criminal acts such as beating people with pick axe handles and golf clubs. 170) _____ 171) By March 2004, the number of Iraqi police killed was about the same as the number of U.S. military personnel killed. 171) _____ 172) Chinese police training emphasizes physical fitness and fighting skills. 172) _____ 173) Westerners living in Saudi Arabia are considered to be a "permanent yet transitory colony of visitors." 173) _____ 174) Most Catholics of Northern Ireland regard themselves as British but hope for a united Ireland. 174) _____ 175) Mexican drug laws have been amended to conform with the "War on Drugs" initiative. 175) _____ ...
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