psych final

psych final - 2. Operant Conditioning There are four...

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2. Operant C onditioning There are four possible consequences to any behavior. They are: Something Good can start or be presented; Something Good can end or be taken away; Something Bad can start or be presented; Something Bad can end or be taken away. Consequences have to be immediate, or clearly linked to the behavior. With verbal humans, we can explain the connection between the consequence and the behavior, even if they are separated in time. For example, you might tell a friend that you'll buy dinner for them since they helped you move, or a parent might explain that the child can't go to summer camp because of her bad grades. With very young children, humans who don't have verbal skills, and animals, you can't explain the connection between the consequence and the behavior. For the animal, the consequence has to be immediate. The way to work around this is to use a bridge Postive and Negative Reinforcement The technical term for "an event started" or "an item presented" is positive , since it's something that's added to the animal's environment. The technical term for "an event ended" or "an item taken away" is negative , since it's something that's subtracted from the animal's environment. Anything that increases a behavior - makes it occur more frequently, makes it stronger, or makes it more likely to occur - is termed a reinforcer . Often, an animal (or person) will perceive "starting Something Good" or "ending Something Bad" as something worth pursuing, and they will repeat the behaviors that seem to cause these consequences. These consequences will increase the behaviors that lead to them they are reinforcers . These are consequences the animal will work to attain, so they strengthen the behavior.
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Wilson during the Spring '07 term at Towson.

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psych final - 2. Operant Conditioning There are four...

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