9.1 - Intelligence and Intelligence Tests, 9.1 Charles...

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Intelligence and Intelligence Tests, 9.1 Charles Spearman’s psychometric approach to intelligence was based on the measurement of individual differences in performance. Measured how well a group of people performed various tasks. To perform well on any test of mental ability, people need a general ability , which he called g. The overlap among tests is referred to as g, the general factor in intelligence To account for the fact that performances on various tasks do not correlate perfectly, Spearman suggested that each task also requires a “ specific” ability , s. Intelligence consists of a general ability plus an unknown number of specific abilities. Called it “monarchic” theory of intelligence because it included a dominant ability, which ruled over the lesser abilities. Possible explanation for g: - All tasks measure a single underlying ability - All tests depend on one underlying skill, such as “mental speed” - G represents how easily one’s neurons change in response to altered experiences - G depends on working memory - We have several kinds of intelligence that correlate because they grow in the same ways - All forms of intelligence depend on genes, health, nutrition and education Most intellectual tasks activate the brain areas responsible for attention and working memory. Use fluid and crystallized intelligence to describe specific (s) factors. The analogy of water, fluid fits any shape, crystal only fits one. Developed by Raymond Cattell . Fluid Intelligence : the power of reasoning and using information. Includes the ability to perceive relationships, solve unfamiliar problems, and gain knowledge. Crystallized Intelligence : consists of acquired skills and knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge in specific situations. Fluid reaches its peak before age 20, remains constant and then
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course PSY 111 taught by Professor Cooper during the Spring '08 term at Miami University.

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9.1 - Intelligence and Intelligence Tests, 9.1 Charles...

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