9.2 - Chapter 9.2 Evaluation of Intelligence Tests...

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Chapter 9.2 Evaluation of Intelligence Tests Standardization of IQ Tests Standardization : the process of establishing rules for administering a test and interpreting the scores. The norms : descriptions of how frequently various scores occur. IQ tests have a mean score of 100, with a standard deviation of 15 for the Wechsler test and 16 for the Standard-Binet. The Distribution of IQ Scores In any normal standard deviation, 68% if all people fall within 1 standard deviation above or below the mean, and about 95% are within 2 standard deviations. (Standard deviation measures the variability of performance. The smaller it is the closer it is to the mean). Psychologists sometimes refer to people with more than 2 standard deviations above the mean—with an IQ of 130 or more —as “gifted.” Gifted children learn rapidly and without much help, seek to master knowledge. Many develop a single ability, such as mathematics, far beyond their other abilities. Psychologists classify people more than 2 standard deviations below the mean as mentally challenged or disabled. The cutoff is arbitrary, and a psychologist considers other observations of the person’s level of functioning before making a diagnosis. In the US, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requires public schools to provide free and appropriate education for all children, regardless of their limitations. Children with mild physical or intellectual disabilities are mainstreamed—placed in the same classes as other as other children. Results have been mixed; some studies have found that children develop better language abilities. Girls tend to do better than boys on certain kinds of language tests, relating to verbal fluency and memory tests. Boys tend to do better than girls on visuospatial rotations. By loading IQ tests with one type if item or another, test authors could have produced results showing that girls are smarter than boys or that boys are smarter than girls. Males show greater individual variability. More males than females appear at the extreme top and bottom parts of the range. Restandardization and The Flynn Effect Restandardization- researchers periodically restandardize tests to keep the mean score from rising and falling.
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The Flynn effect: Decade by decade, generation by generation, people’s raw scores on IQ tests have gradually increased, and test makers have had to make the tests harder to keep the mean score at 100. Named after James Flynn; results vary across countries, tests, and periods of time, but a typical figure is 3-4 IQ points per 10 years. The Flynn effect was the strongest in the early and middle 1900s and has slowed or stopped since the 1990s, at least in parts of Europe. Researchers reported decreased performance between 1976 and
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9.2 - Chapter 9.2 Evaluation of Intelligence Tests...

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