bio notes

bio notes - P 2-10, 19-26 Organizational complexity -life...

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P 2-10, 19-26 Organizational complexity - life molecules are bigger, i.e. DNA, proteins, lipids, carbs, etc. Energy keeps life organized and u have to pay 4 it Homeostasis=energy maintaining complexity of organisms eg body temp. You have to have observations repeated by others, well formed questions, hypothesis, predictions, lots of experiments, look at results, evaluate hypothesis, draw conclusions, report it Limits : Science is only material, science can’t say anything about supernatural There are 92 natural elements There’s lots of space b/t nucleus and electrons Van der Waal’s bonds = weak like hydrogen bonds Water on Earth keeps temperature from drastically changing pH = hydrogen ion concentration scale of 0-14 0 is acidic; 14 is basic/alkaline bases have more OH - acids have more H + carbon is important to life bcuz it has 4 valence electrons monomer = single building block, chain of organic molecules polymer = chain of monomers monosaccharide = simple sugar disaccharide = group of 2 monosaccharides eg maltose Oligosaccharide = 3 or 4 monosaccharides Carbon can form hexagonal rings Carb monomer = monosaccharide Glucose forms cellulose or starch Starch is digestible and cellulose isn’t bcuz of structure Dehydration reaction-giving off water in rxn. i.e. cellulose monomers bonding Glycogen = branched polysaccharide for human energy storage; in liver Chitin = polysaccharide, exoskeleton, structural, indigestible Lipids Hydrocarbon with glycerol on one end of it makes a fatty acid Saturated fat has no double bonds and hydrogen is everywhere it can be Unsaturated is bent cuz theres places w/o hydrogen All lipids are hydrophobic (insoluble in water) Types of lipids: fats, Triglycerides-fat under your skin (subcutaneous) 3 fatty acids with glycerol-condensation rxn makes them bond; it’s a triglyceride carboxyl group = 1 of 6 most impo. Groups hydroxyl group = another phosphate group = another
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amino group = another sulfhydryl group = another carbonyl group = another phospholipids - they have hydrocarbons also; only has 2 fatty acid chains; has hydrophilic head & hydrophobic tail; head has phosphate group; used for cell membranes cholesterol : has 4 rings bonded together (sterol cmpd.) lipids aren’t made from monomers and polymers Proteins There are 20 main amino acids Polymers of a.a. are polypeptides bcuz of peptide bonds b/t a.a. Chain of a.a. is polypeptide; finished product is protein (maybe multiple polypeptides) All a.a. has different r group All have central carbon with other groups sticking out Surface protein of ppl is carotin Hw due Thurs. N-C-C-N-C-C-…amino acids Polypeptide chain-amino acid keeps getting new stuff (NCC’s are links in chain) Sickle cell anemia-error in 6 th part of polypeptide chain Amine groups attract with H bonds, secondary structure of protein can have helical coil, pleated sheet all bcuz of H bonding; just bcuz of backbone (not R groups) Primary structure = order of components Secondary “
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BY 1134 taught by Professor Arnett during the Fall '07 term at Lipscomb.

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bio notes - P 2-10, 19-26 Organizational complexity -life...

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