exam 1 study guide - Ch 1-chemistry study of matter its...

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A = mass number; A = Z + N Isotope = atoms of an element with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons A Z Z = atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus) N = number of neutrons in the nucleus X Ch. 1 --chemistry: study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with these changes—matter: anything that has mass and volume -the “stuff” of the universe—composition: the types and amounts of simpler substances that make up a sample of matter—properties: the characteristics that give each substance a unique identity—physical properties: those which the substance shows by itself without interacting with another substance such as color, melting point, boiling point, density—chemical properties: those which the substance shows as it interacts with, or transforms into, other substances such as flammability, corrosiveness—energy: capacity to do work—potential energy: energy due to the position of the object or energy from a chemical reaction—kinetic energy: energy due to the motion of the object—kinetic and potential energy can be interconverted--a gravitational system: the potential energy gained when a lifted weight is converted to kinetic energy as the weight falls--Kelvin (K): the “Absolute temperature scale” begins at absolute zero and only has positive values--Celsius (oC):the temperature scale used by science, formally called centigrade, most commonly used scale around the world; water freezes at 0oC, and boils at 100oC--Fahrenheit (oF):commonly used scale in the U.S. for our weather reports; water freezes at 32oF and boils at 212oF-- Ch. 2 —element:the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties. An element consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means.—molecule: a structure that consists of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together and thus behaves as an independent unit—compound: a substance composed of two or more elements which are chemically combined—Law of definite composition: No matter the source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the
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