Lecture 22Suggested readings:Fundamentals of Environmental and ToxicologicalChemistry. S. Manahan. (last chapter: organic chemistry)Environmental organic chemistry. Second Edition. R. P. Schwarzenbach, P. M. Gschwend, D. M. Imboden. (chapter 1)Environmental Chemistry Baird and Cann. (Appendix: Background Organic Chemistry)Organic and biochemistry for today. By Seager and Slabaugh.Introduction to organic chemistry of environmental interest
3ObjectivesFollowing this lecture, you are expected to be able to answer the followings:▪What is organic chemistry? What are the exceptions to the definition of organic chemistry?▪What kind of organic compounds classification is better and why?▪What are the main elements of organic compounds & explain why carbon is important.▪What are chiral compounds and their importance?▪What is BTEX and its environmental problems?▪Using a structural diagram, show what is meant by the bay region in certain PAHs. How is thepresence of this region related to the health effects of PAHs?▪Explain why polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are rather persistent in the environment.▪Calculate DBE for unsaturated compounds.
Also recognize:▪Different classes of organic compounds, their functional groups, properties &reactions (carefully check the examples and recognize the functional groups).▪Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons▪Molecular geometry of hydrocarbons▪Environmental problems of petroleum oil spills considering the properties ofhydrocarbons▪Carcinogenic PAHs, sources and their propertiesObjectives (continued)
Organic chemistryThe study of carbon-containing compoundsexcept:▪Elemental carbon (diamond, graphite, coal)▪CO2▪CO▪Carbonates (CO32-group)▪Cyanides (CN-group)
FriedrichWohler1828‘I can make urea withoutthe need of a pig or a dog’▪Organic compoundsnaturalsynthetic
Organic compounds (C, H, O, N, S, P and halogens)
Why carbon is important▪Carbon compounds make up over 90% of all chemical compounds▪Carbon withfourvalance electrons has the ability for covalent bonding with otherelements▪It also may bond with itself:single, double and triplebonds▪Limitless variety of straight chains, branched chains, and rings▪The study of carbon compounds (organic chemistry) serves as the basis for living systems▪Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and naturalgas▪CH4and COplay a key role in trapping heat in the atmosphere (greenhouse effect &global warming)▪Many types of organic compounds in the environment are considered as pollutants10