CHEM321-P22-L02- Part I.pdf - Environmental Chemistry...

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Environmental ChemistryCHEMISTRY 321Spring 2022Maryam Izadifard
Lecture 22Suggested readings:Fundamentals of Environmental and ToxicologicalChemistry. S. Manahan. (last chapter: organic chemistry)Environmental organic chemistry. Second Edition. R. P. Schwarzenbach, P. M. Gschwend, D. M. Imboden. (chapter 1)Environmental Chemistry Baird and Cann. (Appendix: Background Organic Chemistry)Organic and biochemistry for today. By Seager and Slabaugh.Introduction to organic chemistry of environmental interest
3ObjectivesFollowing this lecture, you are expected to be able to answer the followings:What is organic chemistry? What are the exceptions to the definition of organic chemistry?What kind of organic compounds classification is better and why?What are the main elements of organic compounds & explain why carbon is important.What are chiral compounds and their importance?What is BTEX and its environmental problems?Using a structural diagram, show what is meant by the bay region in certain PAHs. How is thepresence of this region related to the health effects of PAHs?Explain why polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are rather persistent in the environment.Calculate DBE for unsaturated compounds.
Also recognize:Different classes of organic compounds, their functional groups, properties &reactions (carefully check the examples and recognize the functional groups).Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbonsMolecular geometry of hydrocarbonsEnvironmental problems of petroleum oil spills considering the properties ofhydrocarbonsCarcinogenic PAHs, sources and their propertiesObjectives (continued)
Organic chemistryThe study of carbon-containing compoundsexcept:Elemental carbon (diamond, graphite, coal)CO2COCarbonates (CO32-group)Cyanides (CN-group)
FriedrichWohler1828‘I can make urea withoutthe need of a pig or a dog’Organic compoundsnaturalsynthetic
Organic compounds
Organic compounds (C, H, O, N, S, P and halogens)
Why carbon is importantCarbon compounds make up over 90% of all chemical compoundsCarbon withfourvalance electrons has the ability for covalent bonding with otherelementsIt also may bond with itself:single, double and triplebondsLimitless variety of straight chains, branched chains, and ringsThe study of carbon compounds (organic chemistry) serves as the basis for living systemsFossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and naturalgasCH4and COplay a key role in trapping heat in the atmosphere (greenhouse effect &global warming)Many types of organic compounds in the environment are considered as pollutants10

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