Chapter 1 Notes-1 - Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy...

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Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology 1
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Anatomy and Physiology-What is the difference? y Anatomy --structure (form) of the body parts y Physiology --function of the body parts 2
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Types of Anatomy y Gross Anatomy Study of large structures Systems-called systemic anatomy Regions-called regional anatomy y Surface Anatomy-study of internal structures from the surface of the skin x Ex. Blood vessels, pulses 3
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Types of Anatomy Cont. y Microscopic Anatomy structures too small to be seen with naked eye x Cytology--cells x Histology--tissues y Developmental Anatomy Changes over a lifetime x Embryology 4
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Figure 1.2 1 2 Gross or macroscopic anatomical level Microscopic anatomical level Pulmonary trunk Superior vena cava Ascending aorta Right atrium Left ventricle Right ventricle Inferior vena cava Descending aorta Endocardium (inner lining of heart) Myocardium (heart muscle) Epicardium (outer surface of heart) 5
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Form and Function y The principle of complementarity of structure and function (the big fancy name) The structure contributes to the function The function (physiology) of a particular body part hinges upon the structure (anatomy). y Form = function or structure = function 6
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The elbow joint functions as a hinge that permits movement only in one plane. The end of the humerus, the bone of the upper arm, has a roughly cylindrical articulating surface. With this interlocking arrangement, which is stabilized by ligaments and surrounding muscles, only hinge-like movement is permitted. The end of the humerus fits into a broad, deep depression near the end of the ulna, the larger of the two bones of the forearm. Note the corresponding ridges and flanges that help hold the humerus in position and prevent twisting. Humerus Radius Ulna Figure 1.3 1 7
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Levels of organization 8
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Biology-The study of life What makes something alive?? 9
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Necessary Life Functions y maintains boundaries y responds to environmental changes y ingests and digests nutrients y has a metabolism y excretes and reproduces y grows/develops y Cell Specialization results in interdependency 10
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Figure 1.5 1 EXTRACELLULAR MATERIAL AND FLUIDS CELLS combine to form TISSUES combine to form ORGANS interact in ORGAN SYSTEMS The levels of organization in the body, with the four primary tissue types highlighted EPITHELIAL TISSUE CONNECTIVE TISSUE MUSCLE TISSUE NEURAL TISSUE Cell Specialization 11
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Interdependent specialized cells 12
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Survival Needs y Oxygen--cellular respiration (Make ATP) y Nutrients--carbs, lipids (fats), and proteins y Water reactions, body fluids y Normal Body Temperature Hypothermia or heat stroke Enzymes stop functioning outside particular temperature range y Appropriate Atmospheric Pressure Gas exchange outer space or ocean floor??
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  • Fall '15
  • BarbaraEngebretson
  • ventral body cavity

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