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Geog 1001 Review Sheet Exam 1

# Geog 1001 Review Sheet Exam 1 - Geography outline Chapter 1...

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1Geography outline Chapter 1: Essentials of Geography Geography — from geo “earth,” and graphein “to write”. Discusses time and space Studies relationship— natural systems/geographic areas Society– how people impact earth/cultural activities Latitude– is an angular distance north or south of the equator, measured from the center of the earth. Runs east to west on a map or globe. Increases in value from the equator northward and southward. Parallel points along the same latitudinal angle. Can be determined by a fixed celestial object. Tropic of Cancer 23.5' north parallel and Tropic of Capricorn 23.5' south parallel, both are the most extreme north and south that get perpendicular sunlight. Longitude– is an angular distance east or west of a point on Earths surface. These lines run north and south. A line connecting all points along the same longitude is a meridian . Longitude is the name of the angle and the meridian names the line. Prime meridian designates the zero degrees. Great Circle– any circle of Earth’s circumference whose center coincides with the center of Earth. Every meridian is one half of a great circle that passes through the poles. The shortest distance between two points on earth is a great circle route. Equatorial parallel is the only parallel is a great circle. Small Circle– all circles that are not great circles. These circles have centers that do not coincide with the center of the earth. Time difference– Eastern, central, mountain and pacific. Use the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). Earth revolves 360' every 24 hours, or 15' every hour (360/24=15). 1 hour for each increment pf longitude (7.5') on either side of central meridian. Map Projections– a map is a generalized view of an area as seen from above and reduced in size. A scale is a ratio of map units to grand units. A projection is the process of transferring spherical earth to a flat map. A flat map distorts the properties of distance, direction, area, shape and proximity. Properties of a globe that cannot be translated to a map– (1) parallels always are parallel to each other, always are evenly spaced along meridians, and always decrease in length toward the poles. (2) Meridians converge at both poles and are evenly spaced along any individual parallel. (3) The distance between meridians decreases toward poles, with the spacing between meridians at the 60 th parallel equal to one half the equatorial spacing. (4) Parallels and meridians always cross each other at right angles. Large scale maps involving Kilos, is much more accurate than a small scale map that is looking at a specific country etc. Four spheres– there is the abiotic sphere that is nonliving and the biotic that is living. The abiotic consists of atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. The biotic is the biosphere.

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