Female_Reproductive_System_with_px

Female_Reproductive_System_with_px - Female Reproductive...

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Female Reproductive System : (Chapter 23; pages 772 – 833) menarche, menopause A. Ovaries: page 773, figure 23.1; page 774, figure 23.2. Covered by mesovarium, hilus; gametogenesis, steroidogenesis 1. Cortex: germinal epithelium of single layer of cuboidal cells on surface; tunicae albuginea (poorly delineated layer of CT below germinal epithelium); compact, cellular stroma the contains follicles, reticular fibers, and spindle-shaped cells
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1. Follicle development: 5 million in fetus; 600,000-800,000 at birth; 400 mature.
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a. Primordial follicles: page 775, figure 23.3 Immature ovum (primary oocyte) surrounded by one layer of flattened follicular cells. Oocytes in prophase of meiosis I. b. Growing follicles: FSH stimulated (1) Oocyte: cell reached max. dia. of 125-150 micrometers, cortical granules, microvilli (2) Stroma: aa. Unilaminar primary follicle: page 776, figure 23.4. Follicular cells form a single layer of cuboidal cells; no antrum zona pellucidum bb. Multilaminar primary follicle: page 777, figure 23.5. No antrum 1. Granulosa layer: stratified follicular epithelium, 6-12 layers, gap junctions 2. Zona pellucida: gel-like, homogenous, acidophilic, PAS positive, rich in glycoproteins/GAGs 3. Theca folliculi: stroma around follicular cells a. Theca interna: next to granulosa layer; synthesizes the precursor to estrogen b. Theca externa: mostly CT cc. Secondary follicles: page 778, figure 23.6. Growing follicles which develop an antrum, liquor folliculi d. Mature (Graafian) follicles: page 779, figure 23.7. (1) Ovum: 10 mm or greater (2) Antrum: fluid-filled cavity (3) Liquor folliculi: secretion of follicular cells (4) Corona radiata: granulosa cells radially arranged around ovum, one layer thick (5) Zona pellucida (6) Membrana granulosa: mature granulosa layer
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(7) Cumulus oophorus: hillock of cells which surround ovum (8) Theca interna (9) Theca externa d. Follicular atresia: death and disposal of ovarian follicles e. Ovulation: page 780, figure 23.8. Rupture of Graafian follicle and release of ovum, corona radiata, and cell of cumulus oophorus from the ovary. LH stimulation. Day 14 of menstrual cycle. Occurs because: (1) increase in volume and pressure of follicular fluid, (2) enzymatic proteolysis of follicular wall, (3) contraction of smooth muscle fibers of theca externa. f. Origin and maturation of oocytes: page 782, figure 23.10
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(1) Primordial germ cells: origin is endoderm of yolk sac (2) Primary oocytes: found in primary, growing and mature follicles; prophase of first meiotic division (3) Secondary oocytes: mature follicles; first meiotic division completed just before ovulation; the ovum then begins second meiotic division while still in the cortex of the ovary and stops in metaphase following ovulation- this
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division is complete only in the event of fertilization. One secondary oocyte and one polar body if formed. (4) If fertilization occurs: meiosis is complete (one ovum
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Kilgen during the Spring '08 term at Nicholls State.

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Female_Reproductive_System_with_px - Female Reproductive...

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