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Respiratory_System_with_px - Respiratory System(Chapter 19...

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Respiratory System (Chapter 19; pages 612 – 645) I. General Features of the Respiratory System A. Components and basic functions: gaseous exchange between blood and air; air conduction; filter and condition air; secretions include histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and surfactant. 1. Ventilating mechanism: Creates pressure difference for inspiration and expiration; inspiration (active), expiration (passive); diaphragm, rib cage, intercostal muscle, abdominal muscle, and elastic connective tissue. 2. Conducting portion (nasal cavity, oral cavity, naso- and oropharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles): movement of air to and from lungs; strains particulate matter in inspired air; moistens and humidifies air; warms or cools air; tubes remain rigid. 3. Respiratory portion (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, antrum, alveolar sacs and alveoli): gaseous exchange; distinguished by presence of alveoli B. Respiratory Epithelium: ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells. Epithelium undergoes transition as branching occurs 1. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium » simple columnar epithelium » simple cuboidal epithelium » simple squamous epithelium
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2. Cells of the respiratory epithelium: figure 19.9, page 622 (a) Ciliated Columnar epithelium: most abundant (b) Mucous goblet cells (c) Brush cells: microvilli; sensory receptors (d) Basal (short) cells: differentiated into other cell types (e) Small granule cells: granules; neuroendocrine system 3. Metaplasia; dysplasia C. Nasal Cavity: nasal septum; vestibule and internal fossae; nares 1. Vestibule: Stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous and sweat glands; vibrissae; seromucous glands 2. Transitional zone: stratified squamous epithelium to respiratory epithelium; few glands and loss of keratinization 3. Nasal Fossae or Cavity: (a) Respiratory segment: Superior, middle and inferior conchae of lateral wall and smooth mesial wall of nasal fossae covered by respiratory epithelium;
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