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Urinary_System_with_px - The Urinary System Chapter 20...

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The Urinary System: Chapter 20; pages 646 - 685 A. Function: production of urine; urine storage; elimination of waste; osmoregulation; secretion of renin and erythropoietin. B. Kidney: paired, retroperitoneal 1. Gross Anatomy: pg. 648, figure 20.1. Hilum; dense CT capsule; renal pelvis; major and minor calyces; renal sinus; cortex (consists of renal corpuscles, nephron tubules, collecting tubules, peritubular capillaries); medulla (composed of the pyramids and renal columns); medullary pyramids (8-12, composed of collecting ducts, loops of Henle, and vasa recta); renal papilla; medullary rays (parallel tubules consisting of collecting ducts and loops of Henle which penetrate the cortex—considered part of the cortex); nephrons; renal columns (cortical material between pyramids)
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2. Renal lobe: renal pyramid and the cortical tissue associated with it; apices is capped by minor calyce. 3. Renal lobule: medullary ray and the cortical tissue associated with it 4. Nephron: 2 million per kidney; structural and functional blood-filtering subunit of the kidney a. Renal Corpuscle- page 653, figure 20.7; page 656, figure 20.10; located in the cortex (1) Glomerulus: tuft of capillaries within Bowman's capsule; afferent and efferent arterioles; fenestrated endothelium with diaphrams; mesangial cells (2) Bowman’s Capsule aa. Parietal layer: simple squamous epithelium supported by a basal lamina; outer layer bb. Visceral layer: inner layer of podocytes (pedicels processes; filtration slits with diaphragms) cc. Urinary space: between parietal and visceral layers (3) Filtration barrier: includes (1) diaphagm-covered capillary fenestrations, (2) fused basal lamina, (3) diaphragm-covered filtration slits (4) Vascular pole (5) Urinary pole
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b. Uriniferous tubules: proximal convoluted tubule» thick descending limb » thin descending limb of Loop of Henle » thin ascending limb of Loop
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