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Unformatted text preview: Regional Anatomy of the Abdomen Functions of the Abdominal Cavity 1. Houses and protects major viscera 2. Breathing 3. Create changes in intra-abdominal pressure: to assist in micturition, defecation, and child birth Boundaries of the Abdominal Cavity Superior: diaphragm Inferior: pelvic inlet Surface Topography A. Four Quadrant Pattern. Fig. 4.22 1. Right upper quadrant 2. Left upper quadrant 3. Right lower quadrant 4. Left lower quadrant B. Nine-Region Pattern. Fig 4.23 1. Right hypochondriac region 2. Epigastric region 3. Left hypochondriac region 4. Right flank region 5. Umbilical region 6. Left flank region 7. Right groin region 8. Pubic region 9. Left groin region Muscles of the Abdomen Abdominal Wall Muscles . Table 4.1 1. External oblique: plate 241 O: External and inferior borders of ribs 5-12 I: Linea alba and iliac crest A: Compresses abdominal contents; flexes or bends trunk to same side 2. Internal oblique: plate 242 O: Thoracolumbar fascia and iliac crest I: Inferior surfaces of ribs 9-12, linea alba, and pubic crest A: Compresses abdominal contents; flexes or bends trunk to same side 3. Transversus abdominus: plate 243 O: Cartilages of lower ribs, iliac crest, and thoracolumbar fascia I: Linea alba and pubic crest A: Compresses abdominal contents 1 1 4. Rectus abdominis O: Pubic crest and pubic symphysis I: Costal cartilages and xiphoid process A: Compresses abdominal contents; flex vertebral column Posterior Abdominal Wall Muscles. Table 4.2 1. Psoas major: plate 478 O: Anterior surface and transverse processes of vertebrae T12-L5 I: Lesser trochanter of the femur A: Flexes thigh at the hip joint 2. Quadratus lumborum: plate 255 A: Together depress rib XII; one side alone flexes trunk laterally 3. Iliacus: plate 478 O: Iliac fossa of ilium; upper lateral surface of sacrum I: Lesser trochanter of the femur A: Flexes thigh at the hip joint 4. Diaphragm: musculotendinous structure; separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. Figure 4.116 O: Xiphoid process; ribs 11-12 ; anterior surfaces of lumbar vertebrae I: Central tendon A: Contraction expands thoracic cavity; compresses abdominopelvic cavity a. Right crus b. Left crus Fascia of the Abdominal Wall 1. Superficial fascia. Figure 4.24, 4.25, 4.34 A. Superficial layer: fatty layer; continuous over the inguinal ligament and fascia of the thigh B. Deeper layer: thin and membranous with no fat; fuses with fascia lata of the thigh; linea alba of the midline and the pubic symphysis 2. Transversalis fascia: Figure 4.33, 4.34. Fascia that invests the external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles of the abdomen. 3. Extraperitoneal fascia: Figure 4.34. Connective tissue layer deep to the transversalis fascia. It separates the transversalis fascia from the peritoneum. Organs located within the extraperitoneal fascia are termed retroperitoneal....
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Kilgen during the Spring '08 term at Nicholls State.
- Spring '08