12.8 - 12.8 pH and pKa-The equilibrium constant for the...

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12.8 pH and pKa -The equilibrium constant for the reaction is called the ion product constant of water and given the symbol K w . The value given for the equilibrium constant is the value at 25 o C K w = [H 3 O 1+ ][OH 1- ] = 1.0x10 -14 -The [H 3 O 1+ ][OH 1- ] product is a constant in aqueous solutions. pH = -log[H 3 O 1+ ] -The K a of an acid is a commonly used property of acids because it describes the acid strength, but it is frequently given as the pK a to avoid using negative exponents in discussions of acid strength. The pK a of an acid is the negative base 10 logarithm of the K a . pK a = -log K a A high pK a implies a weak acid -Alkanes are the simplest organic compounds. They contain only carbon and hydrogen, so they belong to the larger class of compounds known as hydrocarbons. They differ from other hydrocarbons in that all of the carbon atoms are sp 3 hybridized (each carbon atom is tetrahedral) -All bonds are single bonds in alkanes -Methane, CH 4 , is the simplest alkane. It contains a single carbon atom, which is sp 3 hybridized. All H-C-H bond angles are 109 o . Methane is a primary component of natural gas. -The next simplest alkane is ethane, C 2 H 6 . Typical of alkanes, all carbons are sp 3 hybridized and all bond angles are 109 o . It is the ability of carbon atoms to bond to one another that is responsible for the large number of organic compounds. -Carbon atoms always have four bonds in their compounds In a Lewis structure of an organic compound, all of the bonds and atoms are shown
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