3.Antrhoropogenic chemials Part 2 Pesticides 2015

3.Antrhoropogenic chemials Part 2 Pesticides 2015 - ETOX...

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ETOX 102A Winter 2015 Anthropogenic Chemicals Part 2: Pesticides James N. Seiber Professor Emeritus Department of Environmental Toxicology, UCD Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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Definition of a pesticide Pesticides are chemicals (or mixtures) used by humans to restrict (or repel) pests such as bacteria, nematodes, insects, mites, mollusks, birds, rodents, and other organisms that affect food production or human health. They disrupt some component of the pest's life processes to kill or inactivate it .
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Worldwide Pesticide Use Worldwide Pesticide use in 2007 is estimated at 5.1 billion pounds (U.S.E.P.A.) Worldwide Pesticide use in 1995 is estimated at 5.75 billion pounds (U.S.E.P.A.) Pesticide use in China estimated to be 2.4 billion pounds per year
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Conventional Pesticide Active Ingredient Used in the U.S. (Million Pounds) Note: Conventional pesticides only, excluding sulfur, petroleum oil, and other chemicals used as pesticides (e.g., sulfuric acid and insect repellents), wood preservatives, specialty biocides, and chlorine/hypochlorites. Source: EPA estimates based on USDA/NASS and EPA proprietary data.
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Agricultural pesticide use areas are in green Total pounds pesticides used 102,477,000 lbs. in 1975 a 173,214,000 lbs. in 2010 b a Restricted materials and commercial applications only b “100% reporting”
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Codling Moth Larva in Apple
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Weedy Fields
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Delousing civilians, Naples typhus epidemic 1943-44
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Prophylactic measures against malaria with DDT
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Early Aerial Spraying, General Dusting
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Drift and Airborne Transport
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Dormant Orchard Spraying
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Directed Spray
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Modern Aerial Spraying—Cotton in California
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Pesticide Spraying of Rice in the Philippines With Backpack Sprayer
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Pesticides, Food, and Health Purpose Increase productivity and quality of food production Ensure food security Ensure agricultural production Effective both during crop growth and post harvest Concerns acute toxicity to workers preparing pesticide solutions from concentrates accidental exposure during handling ecological exposure to wildlife carry over residues on food items
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Illnesses and Injuries in California
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  • Winter '10
  • RonaldTjeerdema
  • Pesticide, Insecticide, pesticide active ingredient, Worldwide Pesticide, Total pounds pesticides

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