7.Polarity.Solubility.Hydros.Seiber2015

7.Polarity.Solubility.Hydros.Seiber2015 - Polarity...

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Polarity, Solubility and Dissolution Polarity and the Properties of Water Dissolution Process Influence of Salinity on Solubility Influence of pH on Solubility Nature of Hydrosphere and Lithosphere Summary and Conclusions ETOX 102a January 22, 2014
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Overview of Chemodynamics
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II. Polarity and the Properties of Water
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Dissolution – process by which a solid, gas or liquid is dispersed homogeneously as discrete atoms or molecules in a liquid (water). Water Solubility (S) – abundance of a chemical in the aqueous phase when the solution is in equilibrium with the pure compound in its actual aggregation state (s, l, g), at specific temperature, pressure. III. Dissolution Process
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Guide to Molecular Polarity and Solubility Hydrocarbon character Hydrocarbon character CH CH 3 (CH (CH 2 ) ) n — , Phenyl — , Phenyl Heteroatom substituents (NO Heteroatom substituents (NO 2 , OH, Cl, etc.) , OH, Cl, etc.) Size Size Number/Type of halogens (Cl, Br, I) Number/Type of halogens (Cl, Br, I) Ionization and pH dependence Ionization and pH dependence Symmetry, e.g. Symmetry, e.g. Versus Versus
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Neutral Organic Molecules Carbon electronegativity = 2.50 Hydrogen electronegativity = 2.20 Virtually no difference, so no significant dipole.
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Solubility and Polarity
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IV. Influence of Salinity on Solubility Presence of dissociated Na + and Cl - .
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