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January 15 - Lesson 1 The study of crime homicide in...

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January 15, 2008 Lesson 1 The study of crime & homicide in colonial Nova Scotia. 1749-1815 The study of crime Importance of context Issue of criminal statistics Case study: importance of context: homicide in Nova Scotia Tutorial: groups 1 & 2 Studying the study of crime Classical school: Crime → choice of individual; individual chooses to commit crime. Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794): On Crimes and Punishments (1764) Protest against European justice systems 1 st person to study crime. Unimpressed with criminal justice system across Europe. Found they were unfair, unpredictable and bias. Based on class, and unfair to lesser classes. Ex. Bloody Code. 288 crimes that had the death penalty as punishment. Founder of classical school. The Enlightenment: •18th c. period of European thought characterized by the emphasis on experience and reason, mistrust of religion and traditional authority •individual: rational & has choice Should only believe something if you have good reason to believe it. Positivist School: Crime: defect of individual Criminals: physically or mentally defective Therefore: can study human body to learn about crime Positivist & Classical schools: emphasis on individual and crime
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William Sheldon: body shape determines personality. Criminal anthropology associated with positivist ideas: o Phrenology: shape of head linked to behaviour o Craniometry: examined size of skull and brain o Physiognomy: concerned with facial features.
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