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lecture+17+identity+politics+gender+_+sexual+orientation+lecture+november+2014+class (1)

Lecture+17+identity+politics+gender+_+sexual+orientation+lecture+november+2014+class (1)

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Identity Politics II: gender & sexual orientation November 2014
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Identity Issues in Latin America Cross-cutting identities: class, ethnicity, gender, religion. Fluidity of identities: ethnicity depends on context (self- definition changes based on policy incentives & status of groups). Individual changes easier for religious and even class identities (conversion & social mobility), although gender can be changed. Gender usually lower in hierarchy cutting with all other forms of identity discrimination. Sexual orientation as newer ‘political’ identity. Class identities predominant in the organization of political cleavages.
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The politicization of gender/sexual orientation Whereas new left wing parties benefited from their alliance with new social movements based on identity, especially indigenous identity; traditional discrimination still pervades the politics of the Left. New challenges also emerge from coalition building and differences between majority & minority groups => how to define an identity ‘group’. Gender identities => not minority (usually ½ population in all countries), but traditional hierarchies translated to politics => political underrepresentation (cross-sectionality) within discriminated groups (e.g. Afrodescendent women/indigenous). Yet, gender like sexual orientation does not necessarily overlaps with class like ethnic identities in the region => access to political elites.
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Women Political Representation (circa 2014) (Htun forthcoming) Election Year Lower House Upper House Quota in Effect at Election Argentina 2013 36.2 39.4 Y Bolivia 2009 25.4 47.2 Y Brazil 2010 8.6 16 Y Chile 2009 14.2 13.2 Colombia 2010 12.1 16 Costa Rica 2010 38.6 Y Cuba 2013 48.9 Dom. Republic 2010 20.8 9.4 Y Ecuador 2013 38.7 Y El Salvador 2012 26.2 Guatemala 2011 13.3 Honduras 2009 19.5 Y Mexico 2012 36.8 32.8 Y Nicaragua 2011 40.2 Panama 2009 8.5 Y Paraguay 2013 17.5 20 Y Peru 2011 21.5 Y Uruguay 2009 12.1 12.9 Venezuela 2010 17 Average 24.5
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“WOMEN” ISSUES? Issues: Family law: divorce (Argentina Peron & Alfonsin versus Chile 2004-role of the Church ), custody, inheritance, etc.
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