BIOL241 Exam 2 ObjectivesChapters 5 and 6 and a few important ‘odds and ends’ from Chapter 1Chapter 51. Describe the functions of skin and explain how the skin performs each of these functions (starts atpage 163).2. Describe the structure of skin (epidermis and dermis) and know the structure and function of thefollowing: basal cells, keratinocytes, keratin, melanocytes, melanosomes, epidermal dendritic cells,tactile (aka Merkel) cells, arrector pili muscle, epidermis, dermis (papillary and reticular layers, and whateach is made of), hypodermis (subcutaneous layer), eccrine sweat gland, merocrine sweat gland,sebaceous glands.3. Know the layers of the epidermis- the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratumlucidum, stratum corneum.Which layers contain living cells? Dead cells? Which layer is highly mitotic?What cells types are present in the stratum basale? Other layers?4. Describe the origins of skin color and the effects of UV radiation on the skin. Explain why there is somuch variation in human skin color.Know how: melanin, carotene and blood flow influence skin color. Ismelanocyte number a major factor in pigmentation? What is cyanosis, erythema?5. Understand the functions of sweat (sudoriferous) and oil (sebaceous) gland.Compare and contrasteccrine and apocrine sweat glands.Know the basic ingredients of sweat.Also know what ceruminousglands are.6. Understand the 3 different skin cancers- differentiate basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinomaand melanoma. For each skin cancer- know the origin of each (which cell type can become the variouscancer types).Know the ABCD rule for melanomas! Define each ABCD.Also- define the broadcategories of cancer subtypes- carcinoma, adenoma and sarcoma- know the tissues of origin7. Burns- Understand the specific dangers that burn victims are likely to suffer from.Differentiatebetween first, second, and third degree burns and know the approximate healing time, characteristicsand suggested treatment for each.Define partial thickness burn and full thickness burn.Explain the"rule of nines" and how it can be used in burn patient management.From Chapter 5 you can skip all detailed information about hair and nails, pages 157-160.