5 - Biology 1001 Spring 2008 (B. Fall), Class notes, topic...

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Biology 1001 Spring 2008 (B. Fall), Class notes, topic #5—Introduction to Mendelian inheritance: Mendel's discoveries; monohybrid crosses; segregation; dominance . Preparation: complete the reading assignment in your text (Freeman, Biological Science, 2 nd ed.): pp. 269- 276. Learning objectives: . 1. Appreciate the importance Mendel’s discoveries. 2. Understand the design of Mendel’s basic experiments, from P to F 1 to F 2 . 3. Understand basic genetics concepts including alleles, segregation, dominance, homozygous, heterozygous 4. Learn how to create and interpret a Punnett square to represent genetic crosses. Notes: I. Genetics (study of heredity and variation) is the topic of the next series of lectures: A. Molecular level—storage of genetic information (DNA); duplication of that information (replication); dissemination of that information into products (transcription and translation). B. Cell level—mitosis; meiosis. C. Individual level—life cycles; principles of inheritance (parent to offspring). D. Population level—frequencies of genes in populations of individuals; changes over generations (= evolution). II. Blending inheritance is an idea that prevailed in the 1800s. It was incompatible with Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, since different traits over time would be “blended,” and a population would thus tend toward homogeneity. Darwin proposed his own hypothesis of particulate inheritance (“pangenesis”), which also proved to be wrong. III. Gregor Mendel (Austrian monk; 1822-1884) discovered the basic principles of inheritance, primarily through his research on the garden pea, Pisum sativum . His work (published in 1866) was ignored at the time, but rediscovered in 1900. Darwin never did learn of Mendel’s discoveries. A.
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5 - Biology 1001 Spring 2008 (B. Fall), Class notes, topic...

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