{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

3 - Biol 1001 Spring 2008(B Fall Class notes...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biol. 1001 Spring 2008 (B. Fall), Class notes, topic #3—Evolutionary relationships and classification. Preparation: complete the reading assignment in your text (Freeman, Biological Science, 2 nd ed.): pp. 5-10, 556-561, 614 Learning objectives: 1. Appreciate what systematics is and why it is an important branch of biology. 2. Become familiar with Linnaean classification categories and binomial nomenclature. 3. Understand the relationship between common descent and a natural, hierarchical classification system. 4. Appreciate some methods used by scientists to reconstruct evolutionary history. 5. Learn how to “read” a phylogenetic tree. 6. Understand that cladistic classification reflects phylogeny and why this is preferred. 7. Understand the basic structure of the tree of life, with three broad branches (domains); distinguish prokaryotes from eukaryotes. Notes: I. Classification A. There are nearly 2 million described living species on Earth; probably many times that number are undiscovered. To help make such bewildering diversity more understandable, humans group or categorize them. Early classifications were devised when species were considered fixed, unchanging. B. Darwin’s idea that living species are descended with modification from pre-existing ones, forming a “tree” with “branches” and “twigs” has been incorporated into a modification of one of these—a nested hierarchy. II. Systematics is the study of the relationships among organisms, and includes taxonomy (the practice of naming and classifying them). A. A goal of modern biological classification is to reflect evolutionary genealogy ( phylogeny , or the evolutionary history of a taxon)—thus there is historical information in such a classification. A taxon (pl., taxa) is a named group of related organisms, at any taxonomic category level. Dogs and wolves (genus Canis ) and birds (class Aves) are two examples of taxa. B. Carolus Linneaus (1707-1778) is the father of modern classification ( Systema Naturae ). He introduced the concept of binomial nomenclature (genus + specific epithet). Linneaus was a creationist, not an evolutionist (he classified for the “greater glory of God”), yet his hierarchical system lent itself well to an evolutionary framework. C. Some rules of binomial nomenclature: Latin (or Latinized); italicize; capitalize genus, not specific epithet; name unique within kingdom; example, Homo sapiens (modern humans).
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern