7 & 8 - Biology 1001 Spring 2008(B Fall Class notes...

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Biology 1001 Spring 2008 (B. Fall), Class notes, topics #7 and 8—Molecular genetics: DNA, RNA, chromosomes, genes; from genes to proteins (transcription and translation). Preparation: complete the reading assignments in your text (Freeman, Biological Science, 2 nd ed.): Topic #7: pp. 56-59 (proteins); 74-85 (nucleic acids); 303-318 (DNA). Topic #8: 325-336 (genes and genetic code), skim 338-355 (translation). (Please note that these readings go into a lot more detail than I expect you to master, especially Ch. 16. Focus your reading on basic concepts and terms in the outline below.) I strongly recommend that you work through the tutorials on the Freeman companion website that are referenced below in the outline, part V., A.: (1. DNA structure; 2. DNA replication; 3. transcription; 4. translation). Learning objectives: 1. Understand the basic structure of nucleic acids, and similarities and differences between DNA and RNA. 2. Outline basic events of DNA replication: how (and why) DNA makes copies of itself. 3. Understand the central dogma (the relationship among DNA, RNA, and protein) 4. Outline the basic events of transcription and translation, and distinguish the two processes. 5. Understand what the genetic code means, and how to read it. 6. Appreciate what genes are, where they occur, and what they do. Notes: I. Nucleic acids A. DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid] and RNA (ribonucleic acid) are each polymers made up of nucleotide monomers (repeating subunits). B. Nucleotides are comprised of a 5-carbon sugar + phosphate + one of four kinds of nitrogenous bases of two groups: 1. Adenine and guanine (purines); 2. Cytosine and thymine (pyrimidines); in RNA, uracil replaces thymine. C. Nucleic acid arrangement: bases are side groups off sugar-phosphate “backbone.” D. DNA consists of two complementary antiparallel [running in opposite directions] strands, held together by hydrogen bonds between base side groups and forming a double helix. 1. Complementary base pairing : hydrogen bonds between C and G or between A and T result in each strand being the complement of the other. Thus, 5’-ACGTCT-3’ in one strand has as its complement 3’-TGCAGA-5’ in the other [3’ and 5’ refer to specific carbon atoms in the sugar]. 2. Important properties of DNA include: replication, information content, stability. E. RNA [ribonucleic acid] structure is like DNA except for three features: single-stranded instead of double; ribose instead of deoxyribose as the 5-carbon sugar; the base uracil replaces thymine. II.
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIOL 1001 taught by Professor Fall during the Spring '08 term at Minnesota.

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7 & 8 - Biology 1001 Spring 2008(B Fall Class notes...

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