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text outline - Chapter 1 I The Nature of History A What is...

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Chapter 1 I. The Nature of History A. What is history? B. History as written record of human activity C. Causes and patterns of human organization and ideas D. New methods and tools II. The Stone Age Background A. Prehistory: before written records appeared (c. 3000 BCE) B. Paleolithic: "Old Stone" Age 1. Upper Paleolithic Era 2. Hunters and gatherers (nomads) C. The Neolithic revolution 1. Development of managed food production 2. Permanent settlements 3. Intensification of trade 4. More complex society 5. Specialization 6. Social distinctions D. Food production 1. Domestication of plants and animals 2. A gradual process 3. The Fertile Crescent (ancient Western Asia/ancient Near East) 4. Population increase 5. Surplus and storage E. Permanent settlements 1. Emergence of villages 2. Jericho and Çatal Hüyük 3. Rise of a priestly class — a bridge to political forms of authority 4. Trade and the exchange of commodities 5. Social stratification and social elites II. The First Cities and Primary Civilization A. Mesopotamia ("the land between the rivers") 1. The Tigris and Euphrates 2. Irrigation B. Ubaid culture 1. Controlling the environment 2. Temple-building 3. Religious structure a. Rise of a priestly class b. Managing economic resources B. Uruk period (4300-2900 BCE) 1. Transition to Sumerian city-states a. Temple architecture b. An (sky god) c. Urbanization B. Development of writing 1. Record-keeping 2. Pictographs 3. Cuneiform ("wedge-shaped writing") 4. Scribal schools ("Houses of the Tablet") II. Sumer and the Sumerians A. Sumerian writing B. Sumerian cities: Uruk, Ur, Lagash, Eridu, and Kish C. Slavery 1. Prisoners of war 2. Slaves as forms of property D. City-states 1. Fiercely independent 2. Little possibility for unification
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E. Early Dynastic Period, phases I and II (2900-2500 BCE) 1. War leadership 2. Conflict between city-states 3. Lugal ("big man") a. Eclipsed power of priestly class b. Led the army 2. Sumerian "king list" (c. 2125 BCE) a. Identifying the origins of kingship b. Rationalizing a mythical past 2. The Epic of Gilgamesh a. Legendary king of Uruk b. Military conquest and heroism
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text outline - Chapter 1 I The Nature of History A What is...

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