100%(8)8 out of 8 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 27 pages.
California Bar – July 2006Torts INTENTIONALTORTSThe hypersensitivity of the plaintiff should be ignored. Always assume the plaintiff is an ordinary normal or typical person in analyzing the elements of plaintiff’s case.There are no incapacity defensesin the law of intentional torts [Garrett v. Daly]PRIMAFACIECASE1.[Act by ∆]2.Intent3.Legal CausationA.Act by Defendanta.Torts to the PersonI.BATTERY1.Harmful or OffensiveContact…a.“Offensive”= not normally permitted by an ordinary or reasonable person.b.Types of Contact:i.directii.indirect:∆ sets in motion a force that brings about harmful or offensive contact.2.…with the Plaintiff’s Person.a.“Plaintiff’s Person”includes anything connected to the plaintiff (e.g., purse, dog on a leash), not limitedto skin or flesh. II.ASSAULT1.Creation of a Reasonable Apprehensionin Plaintiff… a.“Apprehension”= knowledge [David & Goliath Hypo]b.Analyzed from plaintiff’s perspective [Unloaded GunHypo]2.… of an ImmediateBattery:a.Overt, physical conduct must accompany the threat. b.However, words can negate immediacy (conditional words or future threats).III.FALSEIMPRISONMENT1.Act or Omission that Confines or Restrains Plaintiff…a.Sufficient: physical barriers; physical force; threats of force; failure to release; invalid use of legal authority.
California Bar – July 2006Torts b.Insufficient: moral pressure; future threats.2.…to a Bounded Area…a.Defined or specified boundaries without a reasonable meansof escape that the plaintiff can reasonably discover.3.…Known by or Causing Harm to Plaintiff.a.∏ must have the mental feeling of being restrained or suffer a physical detriment as a result of confinement.b.Torts to PropertyI.TRESPASS1.Physical Invasion by a Person or Tangible Object… a.for intangible objects (e.g., light, smell) see nuisance.2.…of Plaintiff’s Real Property.a.“real property” = surface, airspace and subterranean space (cujus et solum). ii.Torts to Personal Property—1.Interference with Plaintiff’s Right of Possessiona.“interference”= intermeddling (damage) or dispossession.2.…in a Chattel.a.“chattel”= everything you own other than land andbuildingsb.mistaken belief that chattel is owned by ∆ does notpreclude liability.3. Classification:TRESPASSTOCHATTELSCONVERSIONExtent of HarmModest or Slight(showing of actual damages isrequired)Extensive, Significant orGreatRemedyRental Value(Cost of repair)Replevin (recovery ofitem) or Trover (recovery of FMV)B. IntentA. Rule:the defendant must intend for the occurrence of the volitional act.b. Types:i.Specific:the goal in acting is to bring about specific consequencesii.General:∆ knows with substantial certainty that the consequences will result.iii.Transferred:
California Bar – July 2006Torts 1. Rule:when ∆ intends to commit a tort against one person but—a.commits a different tort against the same person.