Lecture 3 Outline - Portraying Earth

# Lecture 3 Outline - Portraying Earth - Chapter 2:...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 2: Portraying Earth CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Nature of Maps phenomena. B. Basic attributes of maps, making them indispensable: 1. Their ability to show distance, direction, size, and shape in horizontal (two- dimensional) spatial relationships. 2. They depict graphically what is where and they are often helpful in providing clues as to why such a distribution occurs. C. Basic fault of map: 1. No map can be perfectly accurate: on a flat piece of paper. II. Map Scale corresponding distance on the ground. Essential for being able to measure distance, determine area, and compare sizes. a) The smaller the area being mapped, the more accurate the scale can be. B. Scale Types 1. Several ways to portray scale, but only three are widely used: a) Graphic Map Scales (1) Uses a line marked off in graduated distances reproduced in another size, because both the graphic scale line and the map size change in same dimension. b) Fractional Map Scales (1) Uses a ratio or fraction, called a representative fraction, to express the A. Mapha two-dimensional representation of the spatial distribution of selected a) Maps are trying to portray the impossiblehtaking a curved surface and drawing it 1. Map Scalehgives the relationship between length measured on the map and 2. Scale can never be perfectly accurate, again because of the curve of Earthhs surface. comparison of map distance with ground distance on Earthhs surface.

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Sheet1 Page 2 (1) 1/63,360 is commonly used because the number in denominator equals the number of inches in one mile. (2) Often, no units are given in a fractional scale, so the dimensions translate whether one is using inches, millimeters, or some other unit of measurement. c) Verbal Map Scales (1) Also called word scale C. Large and Small Scale the frame of reference whether one considers something large or small. t III. Map Essentials A. Maps should include a few essential components decrease the clarity of the map and make it more difficult to read. 1. The eight essential components are Title, Date, Legend, Scale, Direction, Location, Data Source, and Projection Type. the distance on Earthhs surface. 1. The concepts of hlargeh and hsmallh are comparative, not absolute 2. Large-scale maphhas a relatively large representative fraction, which means the denominator is hsmallh&1/10,000 is large-scale as compared to 1/1,000,000. a) Portrays only a small portion of Earthhs surface, providing considerable detail. 3. Small-scale maphhas a small representation fraction, which means the denominator is hlarge.h a) Portrays a larger portion of Earthhs surface, but gives only limited detail. a) Titlehshould provide a brief summary of the maphs content or purpose and
Sheet1 Page 3 identify the area it covers. any quantities.

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## This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course GEOG GEOG-1114 taught by Professor Dung during the Spring '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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Lecture 3 Outline - Portraying Earth - Chapter 2:...

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