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Lecture 2 Outline - Intro to Earth

Lecture 2 Outline - Intro to Earth - Chapter 1 Introduction...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Earth CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Environmental Spheres overlap and interact. These four spheres provide important organizing concepts for the 1. Lithosphere 2. Atmosphere 3. Hydrosphere a) A subcomponent of the hydrosphere that encompasses frozen water and snow is the cryosphere 4. Biosphere II. The Solar System location of Earth in the universe. revolving around the Sun mass. 3. The Sun is one of perhaps 100,000,000,000 stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is one of at least a billion galaxies in the universe. 1. Earth, like all the planets, revolves from west to east. C. Earth, like the Sun and most of the other planets, rotates from west to east on its own axis. smaller, denser, and less oblate and rotate on their axes more slowly than the Jovian planets. 1. Terrestrial planets are comprised mainly of mineral matter. A. Earthhs surface is a complex interface where four spheres meet, and to some degree systematic study of Earthhs physical geography: A. The geographerhs concern with spatial relationships properly begins with the relative 1. Solar systemhsystem of nine planets (and moons, comets, asteroids, meteors) 2. Sunhmedium-sized star and makes up more than 99 percent of the solar systemhs B. Earthhs planetary orbit lies in nearly the same plane as all the other planets, except that of Plutohs, which is somewhat askew. D. The terrestrial planets (the four inner planets hMercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) are
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Sheet1 Page 2 more massive, less dense and more oblate than the terrestrial planets. 1. Jovian planets are comprised mostly of gas. discovered in our solar system beyond Neptune in the Kuiper Belt. III. The Size and Shape of Earth A. Frame of reference determines whether one looks at Earth as being large or small. B. Earth is an oblate spheroid rather than a true sphere, though the variation from true sphericity is exceedingly minute, and so for most purposes it can properly be considered a sphere. a 1. Greek scholars as early as six centuries B.C. began believing Earth was a sphere, with several making independent calculations of its circumference that were all close to reality. Syene on the same day. C. Earth shape is affected by two main facts: a) Its shape is therefore an oblate spheroid. 2. It has topographical irregularities. IV. The Geographic Grid A. A system of accurate location is necessary to pinpoint with mathematical precision the 1. The grid system is the simplest technique, using a network of intersecting lines. E. The Jovian planets (the four outerhJupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) are larger, F. In more recent years, more small-sized hPluto-likeh dwarf planets and comets have been a) Eratosthenese did so by observing the angle of the Sunhs rays in Alexandria and 1. It bulges in midriff, because of pliability of Earthhs lithosphere a) In context of Earthhs full dimensions, these variations are minute.
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