Lecture 4 Outline - Atmosphere and Climatic Controls

Lecture 4 Outline - Atmosphere and Climatic Controls -...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 3: Introduction to the Atmosphere CHAPTER OUTLINE oxygen. B. The atmosphere could be considered a vast ocean of air surrounding Earth. cannot move as a fluid mass. D. Although the atmosphere extends outward to more than 10,000 kilometers, more than surface, and more than 98% of it lies within 26 kilometers of the surface. E. The atmosphere also extends downward into caves, rock, and soil, as well as being dissolved into water and in the bloodstreams of living organisms. II. Composition of the Atmosphere A. Permanent Gases 1. Nitrogen and Oxygen d) Neon, helium, methane, krypton, hydrogen are found in trace amounts B. Variable Gases 1. Water vapor and is the source of all clouds and precipitation, and is intimately involved in the storage, movement, and release of heat energy. b) May be as much as 4% of the total volume of air over warm moist surfaces (i.e., tropical oceans), and less than 1% within arid regions. variable in location and not in time. 2. Carbon dioxide a) Only water vapor and carbon dioxide have a significant effect on weather and climate. b) Water vapor and atmospheric carbon dioxide significantly affect the climate because they can absorb infrared radiation, keeping the lower atmosphere warm. (1) Proportion of carbon dioxide has been increasing at about the rate of 2 parts per million per year and is at present about 380 parts per million. I. Size of Earthhs Atmosphere A. Airhsynonymous with atmosphere, and is a mixture of gases, mainly nitrogen and C. It is held fast to Earthhs surface by the planeths gravitational pull, but not so tightly that it 50% of the atmospherehs mass is concentrated within about 600 meters of Earthhs a) Nitrogenh78% b) Oxygenh21% c) Argonhnearly 1% a) Is invisible in Earthhs atmosphere, but determines the humidity of the atmosphere, c) The total amount of water vapor in Earthhs atmosphere is nearly constant, so it is
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Sheet1 Page 2 (a) Most atmospheric scientists conclude that it will make lower atmosphere warm up enough to cause significant, but unpredictable, global climatic changes. absorb deadly ultraviolet solar radiation and protect animal life. a 4. Proportion of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and various hydrocarbons is also increasing, from emissions from factories and cars. a) All are hazardous to life and may have an effect on climate. C. Particulates (Aerosols) to eye and invisible a) Larger particles are mainly water and ice. 2. Particulates affect the weather and climate in two ways: a) They are hygroscopic (they absorb water), and water vapor collects around them, which contributes to cloud formation b) They can either absorb or reflect sunlight, thus decreasing the amount of solar III. Vertical Structure of Atmosphere A. Thermal Layers 1. Most weather phenomena occur in lower atmosphere. 2. There are five thermal layers in the atmosphere:
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Lecture 4 Outline - Atmosphere and Climatic Controls -...

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