Lecture 9 Outline - Chapter 9: The Hydrosphere CHAPTER...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Chapter 9: The Hydrosphere CHAPTER OUTLINE I. The Hydrologic Cycle A. Water is distributed very unevenly around Earth. which there is a ceaseless interchange of moisture in terms of its geographical location and its physical state. 1. Surface-to-Air Water Movement a) Evaporation is responsible for most of the moisture that enters the atmosphere from (1) Of the moisture evaporated, more than 84% comes from ocean surfaces. (2) The water evaporated becomes water vapor, and though it stays in atmosphere only briefly (hours to days), it can travel a considerable distance, either vertically or horizontally. 2. Air-to-Surface Water Movement a) Water vapor will either condense to liquid water or sublimate to ice to form cloud particles. b) Clouds drop precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail). c) Precipitation and evaporation/transpiration balance in time. (1) They do not balance in place. (a) Evaporation exceeds precipitation over oceans. (b) Precipitation exceeds evaporation over lands. groundwater flow. (1) Runoff is why the oceans do not dry up and continents become flooded despite the imbalance of evaporation and precipitation through space (oceans and continents). (2) Runoff water amounts to 8% of all moisture circulating in global hydrologic cycle. B. Less than 1% of Earthhs total moisture is involved in the hydrologic cycle. C. Hydrologic cycleha series of storage areas interconnected by various transfer processes, in Earthhs surface. 3. Movement on and Beneath Earthhs Surface a) Runoffhflow of water from land to oceans by overland flow, streamflow, and
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Sheet1 Page 2 4. Residence Times b) Residence time of a molecule of water can be hundreds of thousands of years to only a few minutes. II. The Oceans A. Knowledge of seas has been very limited until very recently. 1. Only in about last four decades have we developed technology that allows us to catalog and measure details of ocean environment. billion cubic kilometers of salt water. 3. Just one ocean, which is divided into four principal parts: a) Pacific b) Atlantic c) Indian d) Arctic 4. Most smaller bodies of water are considered portions of ocean. a) A few are so narrowly connected that they warrant separate consideration. a (1) Examples are the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, and Hudson Bay. B. Characteristics of Ocean Waters 1. Significant difference from place to place. 2. Almost all known minerals found to some extent in seawater, but sodium and chloride most important. a) Geographic distribution of surface salinity varies because of (1) Varying evaporation rates a) At any given movement, the atmosphere contains only a few daysh potential precipitation. 2. The hworld oceanh has a surface area of 360 million square kilometers and contains 1.32 3. Salinityha measure of the concentration of dissolved salts.
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Sheet1 Page 3 (2) Varying fresh water discharge rates. 4. Temperatures decrease with increasing latitude.
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course GEOG GEOG-1114 taught by Professor Dung during the Spring '08 term at Oklahoma State.

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Lecture 9 Outline - Chapter 9: The Hydrosphere CHAPTER...

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