Lec02_F03_out - CLASSES #2 & #3: TEN BIG IDEAS 1. 2. 3....

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CLASSES #2 & #3: TEN BIG IDEAS 1. Enlightenment 2. Modernism 3. Scientific Method 4. Relationship between Theory and Reality 5. Scientific Rationality 6. Paradigms 7. Philosophy of Science 8. Science and Pseudo Science 9. Science and Religion 10. Non Zero Sum-ness I. The Enlightment -- How did science come to be? A. Basic Ideas of the Enlightenment 1. Started with Newton’s Principia Mathematica (1687) 2. There is a stable, coherent, knowable self. 3. This self knows world 4. The mode of knowing produced by the objective rational self is "science” 5. The knowledge produced by science is "truth” 6. The knowledge/truth produced by science will always lead toward progress. 7. Reason is the ultimate judge of what is true 8. Scientific knowledge is only 9. Science is 10.Language must be rational also. B. Consequences of the Enlightenment 1. Weakening of traditional religious and subject relationships 2. Rise of democracy – free flow of ideas 3. Spread of capitalism 4. Individuals are increasingly 5. Could no longer turn with secure confidence to the church, guild, or tribe for final and 6. The scientific method became the way to justify and legitimate one’s activities and life – 7. science became II. Modernisms and its Ten Commandments 1. Prediction and control 2. Only the observable implications of a theory 3. Observation entails objective, reproducible experiments 4. If and only if an experimental implication of a theory proves false is the theory proved false
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5. Objectivity 6. When you cannot express it as formal logic, your knowledge is of a meager and unsatisfactory type 7. Introspection, metaphysical belief, aesthetics, and the like may figure in the discovery of a hypothesis but cannot figure it is justification 8. It is the business of methodology to 9. A scientific explanation of an event brings the event 10.Scientists ought not to have anything to say about the oughts of value, whether of morality or art III. A Characterizations of the Scientific Method A. General understandings of “Science” 1. Set of facts and a set of theories that explain the facts 2. A particular approach – the scientific method 3. Whatever is done by institutions carrying on scientific activity B. Misperceptions 1. Most people opt for understanding #3 2. This leads to popular fictions a. Primary goal of science is the b. Science distorts reality and cannot do justice to the fullness of the human spirit c. Scientific knowledge d. Science is concerned primarily with solving practical and social problems C. Basic Steps – logical structure of science 1. Observe some aspect of the universe 2. Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, which is consistent with what you have observed. 3. Use the hypothesis to make predictions.
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course PLS 200 taught by Professor Idk during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Lec02_F03_out - CLASSES #2 & #3: TEN BIG IDEAS 1. 2. 3....

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