3/3/08 - MMW 2 - Chamberlain - Notes � Professor Chamberlain

3/3/08 - MMW 2 - Chamberlain - Notes � Professor Chamberlain

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MMW 2 Notes – Professor Chamberlain, Winter Quarter 2008 03.03.08 INDIA via Greece Alexander the great is an important part of the story in the case of India Indus River civilization – c.2500-c.1800 BC (important date) – Indus river is the western boundary of India. Wasn’t discovered until the mid 19 th century. Scholars aren’t sure if these were the original inhabitants of India, if they joined up with the Aryans, etc. Archeologists discovered an entire civilization that was completely forgotten. Based on their physical remains, they had: many cities covering a large area. The cities were planned. Had a north south axis. The cities are all to the same plan with the north south axis. Have very well constructed walls of mud-brick. Have a raised citadel (used usually for defense) on top of the citadels are huge pools, presumably for some kind of religious right taking place in the big bath. Had sewers. They don’t appear to have worried about defense (we don’t find swords or weapons). Also, the towns were not destroyed by violence (we know this because typically when a town is destroyed by hostility, it is burned, and there is no evidence of burning here). Unfortunately, even though there is some script, it hasn’t been deciphered yet. Is only used on seals (rolled on wet clay to make a mark). On these seals there is the script. On the seals are animal pictures: predominantly bulls, but also some unicorns. Without understanding the text the details cant be put together into a meaningful story They appear to have just declined for an unknown reason, not by conquest. On one or two seals, there is a male figure sitting in a lotus posture, with knees bent, and with an erect phallus (erect penis) The Indus river civilization is mysterious.
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The next civilization in India were the Vedic-Aryan people. They entered India from the north to north-west. Entered India around 1800. The Vedic-Aryans also went to Iran (Persia). Greece also received some of these people. Were nomads. Cows were important to them. They appear to have been quite warlike, had war-chariots. Had bronze weapons They called themselves Aryas (this word eventually in the Indian languages meant noble) The people they encountered there, they referred to as the Dhasas (which means dark). They were also called snub-nosed. Also, in two places of the Rig Veda , we are told that the inhabitants were phallus worshippers. The Aryans looked down upon phallus worship as beneath them. The evidence that the Indus River people were the Dhasas is very weak.
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course MMW 2 taught by Professor Chang during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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3/3/08 - MMW 2 - Chamberlain - Notes � Professor Chamberlain

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