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Review Sheet_Test 3

Review Sheet_Test 3 - Review Sheet Test 3(The Reformation...

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Review Sheet – Test 3 (The Reformation) The Eve of the Reformation (13 th -15 th c.) 1. In what ways did Anselm and Aquinas reflect the Medieval synthesis between faith and reason? - Anselm’s idea that logic is inherent in Christian belief - Aquinas’ 2 realms of knowledge (revelation & reason), where some things escape reason & reason never contradicts faith 2. How did nominalism challenge the Medieval synthesis? What consequences did nominalism have for understanding the basis of authority in Church? For science? For governmental authority? - No universals exist, only the particular - No universal form or abstract ideal, we construct broad concepts of specific things for our own convenience - God does not do things because they are reasonable; He simply does them (can contradict human rationality) God did not set an eternal order in the universe; he left us to make our own order Church no longer has divine authority; only has power thru collective agreement Foundations for modern science – emphasis on observation Foundations for modern democracy – idea that people can & should decide how their society should be 3. How was nominalism expressed in Ockham’s theology? Where does his theological reflection begin? What is the primary source for theological reflection for Ockham? Ockham’s razor – do not introduce unnecessary concepts to explain the way things are; i.e. you can understand clouds without talking about a universal “form of cloud” Theology begins w/ God’s absolute power God can do anything that doesn’t contradict logic God’s power is above reason and right/wrong (God does not do good things, but what God does is good) God can only truly be known thru what he reveals (which may or may not be within the confines of human reason) 4. What does Ockham emphasize about the Christian life? Why? Trust in God is fundamental Believe what is revealed Double truth doctrine – truth discovered thru human reason can conflict with truth revealed by God 5. What were some of the undercurrents in Western Christendom from the 13 th -15 th centuries that were important for the emergence of the Reformation? Rise of the bourgeoisie Nationalism and rise of nation states (i.e. France) 6. How did developing nationalism affect the papacy? How were the problems that developed with the papacy in this time resolved? Be specific. - Increasing power of monarchs undermined papal authority Papacy moved to Avignon in 1309 and Clement V largely served the interests of the French king
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Urban VII elected and returned papacy to Rome French cardinals rescinded his election and Clement VII was declared pope as well, ruled in Avignon Council of Pisa (1409) – new pope elected, other two refused to step down Council of Constance (1414) – all 3 popes forced to resign; Martin V elected 7. What is the Renaissance? What are the characteristics of humanism that came to describe the ethos of the Renaissance? How did a “return to the sources” impact attitudes about the Church? What was a key invention during this time? How so?
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Review Sheet_Test 3 - Review Sheet Test 3(The Reformation...

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