Review Sheet_Test 4

Review Sheet_Test 4 - 1 Review Sheet Test 4(Modern Church...

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Review Sheet – Test 4 (Modern Church) 1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards 1768-1834 Friedrich Schleiermacher 1813-1855 Soren Kierkegaard 1886-1968 Karl Barth 1892-1971 Reinhold Niebuhr 1
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The Enlightenment and Jonathan Edwards – Part 1 1. What were the causes of the decentralization of religious authority at the beginning of the 18 th century? What was the goal of the Enlightenment and why? How was the Enlightenment’s quest for truth different from Augustine’s or Anselm’s pursuit of truth? Decentralization caused by: - Religious Wars in Europe - Religious division - Skepticism (i.e. Descartes) - Scientific progress explained world w/o Biblical assistance, pointed out flaws/errors in Bible - Increasing power of monarchs took precedence over religious authority Goal of Enlightenment: establish religion of reason based on natural law, universal order, confidence in human reason (reason seeking what is to be revealed) 2. What is deism? How was it antagonistic towards traditional forms of Christianity? Who were representative deists? What are the titles of their works? Deism – attempt to establish religion natural to mankind not based on revelation, rejected supernatural ideas Lord Herbert of Cherbury John Toland, Christianity Not Mysterious Matthew Tindal, Christianity As Old As the World 3. What is empiricism? How does Locke distinguish between knowledge based upon experience and knowledge based upon faith? What are the consequences of this distinction for the role of religious knowledge in society? Who criticized empiricism and what were their critiques? Empiricism – idea of knowledge based on human experience Certainty based on reason, judgment based on experience Faith is based on revelation which is never certain, thus religious toleration is necessary Religion & state should be separate The State should be built upon reason Critics : David Hume, Immanuel Kant experiences don’t give us direct access to things; reasonable things come from our interpretation of experiences 4. What experience was central to Jonathan Edwards’s conversion? What did Edwards do to promote his piety toward God after his conversion? How should we understand the notion of conversion in Edwards’s context? Edwards’ conversion experience was his delighting in God’s sovereignty over all things developed 70 resolutions for living a holy life at time, conversion thought to be long arduous process, not a momentous experience 5. Where did Edwards settle as a pastor for over 24 years? What was the goal of Edwards’s overarching theological project? began preaching at grandfather Solomon Stoddard’s church in Northampton, MA 2
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Wanted to show how Calvinism could respond to the challenges & skepticism of the Enlightenment 6. Edwards recounted the experience of a local revival in Northampton in 1734-35 in his Narrative of Surprising Conversions ? Did Edwards think that all conversion experiences were the same? Did he find a commonality among the majority of them? If so, what? Who was influenced by reading Edwards’s account?
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