p13.Bluetooth - 40504050-403 Concepts of Wireless Networks...

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Unformatted text preview: 40504050-403 Concepts of Wireless Networks History 1998 a consortium of companies including Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia, and Toshiba formed a special interest group, codenamed "Bluetooth". The goal was to develop a low-cost, flexible wireless platform for shortlowshortdistance communication (< ~10 meters). 10 meters) 1999 Bluetooth 1.0 specifications were released 10 2003 Bluetooth 1.2 12 2004 Bluetooth 2.0 + Enhanced Data Rate (EDR) 20 bxyics 2 Applications Cable Replacement Data/Voice Access Points Personal Ad Hoc Networks Definition The protocol of a short range (10 meter) frequencyfrequency-hopping radio link between devices Devices called Bluetooth enabled The Specification describes how the technology works h l k Profiles describe how the technology is used bxyics 4 The Protocol Stack bxyics 5 Specification: Radio 2.4 2 4 GHz ISM band. band Three power classes Class 1 for long range (~100m), max power is 20 dBm Class 2: Cl 2 for ordinary range (~10m), max power is 4 dBm Class 3: Cl 3 for short range (~1m), max power is 0 dBm Data D rate i at 1 Mbps, up to 3 Mb is Mb Mbps bxyics 6 Piconets and Scatternets bxyics 7 Frequency Hopping and Time Division Multiplexing fk Master M fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 Slave1 625 s Slot 1 Frame 1 Slot2 625 s Slot 3 Frame 2 t Slot4 bxyics 8 MultiMulti-Slave Transmission fk Master fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 fk+4 fk+5 Slave1 Slave2 t bxyics 9 MultiMulti-Slot Framing fk Master M fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 Slave1 625 s Slot 1 t Slot2 Frame Slot 3 Slot4 bxyics 10 Point to Multi-Point MultiTransmission fk Master Slave1 Slave2 Slave3 t bxyics 11 fk+1 fk+2 fk+3 fk+4 fk+5 Two Types of links SCO (Synchronous Connection-Oriented) ConnectionACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less) link. Connection- bxyics 12 Five Logic Channels LC (Control Channel) LM (Link Manager) UA: Asynchronous user information UI: isochronous user information US: synchronous user information bxyics 13 Device Addressing BD_ADDR: Bluetooth Device Address. AM_ADDR: Active Member Address PM_ADDR: Parked Member Address AR_ADDR: Access Request Address q bxyics 14 Packet Format bxyics 15 Channel Control Standby state Connection state Seven sub-states used to add slaves or make subconnection bxyics 16 Connection Setup (Inquiry/Paging) / Inquiry is used when no information is available about the remote device Paging is used when having some information about g g g the remote device bxyics 17 Step 1: Inquiry Procedure A unit (the source) sending out inquiry packets and ( ) g q yp receiving the inquiry reply The unit that receives the inquiry packets (the destination), will hopefully b in the inquiry scan state d be to receive the inquiry packets. The destination will then enter the inquiry response state and send an inquiry reply to the source. After the inquiry procedure has completed, a q yp p , connection can be established using the paging procedure. bxyics 18 Step 2: Paging Procedure A device (the source) pages another device (the ( )p g ( destination ) The destination receives the page The destination sends a reply to the source The source sends an FHS (Frequency Hopping Synchronization) S h i i ) packet to the destination k h d i i The destination sends it's second reply to the source The d ti ti Th destination & source then switch to the source th it h t th channel parameters bxyics 19 Step 3: Connection Start The Connection state starts with a POLL packet sent by the master to verify that slave has switched to the master s timing and channel master's frequency hopping. The slave can respond with any type of packet. packet bxyics 20 Connection Modes Active Mode Bluetooth unit actively participates on the channel The master schedules the transmission based on traffic demands to and from the different slaves. It supports regular transmissions to keep slaves synchronized to the channel. channel Active slaves listen in the master-to-slave slots for packets. If master-toan active slave is not addressed, it may sleep until the next y p new master transmission. bxyics 21 Three power saving modes Sniff M d S iff Mode Hold Mode Park Mode bxyics 22 Error Correction 1/3 rate FEC (Forward Error Correction) 2/3 rate FEC ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) bxyics 23 Link Manager Protocol The Link Manager carries out g link setup Authentication link configuration and other protocols. g p It discovers other remote LMs and communicates with them via the Link Manager Protocol (LMP). The Link Manager Protocol essentially consists of a number of PDU (protocol Data Units) which are sent from one device to another, determined by the AM_ADDR in the packet header. bxyics 24 PDUs General Response (M) LMP_accepted , LMP accepted LMP_not_accepted Hold Mode (O) LMP_hold , LMP_hold_req LMP hold LMP hold req Authentication (M) LMP_au_rand , LMP_sres Sniff Mode (O) LMP_sniff_req , LMP_unsniff_req Encryption (O) LMP_encryption_mode_req , LMP_encryption_key_size_req, LMP_start_encryption_req, LMP_stop_ encryption_req Park Mode ( ) (O) LMP_p _req , park q LMP_unpark_PM_ADDR_req , LMP_unpark_BD_ADDR_req , LMP_set_broadcast_scan_window , LMP_modify_beacon LMP Version (M) LMP_version_req , LMP_version_res Power Control (O) LMP_incr_power_req , LMP_decr_power_req , LMP_max_power , LMP_min_power Supported Features (M) LMP_features_req , LMP_features_res Quality of Service ( ) (M) LMP_quality_of_service , q y LMP_quality_of_service_req Switch of Master-Slave Role Master(O) LMP_switch_req , LMP_slot_offset Error Handling (M) LMP_not_accepted Name Request (M) LMP_name_req , LMP_name_res bxyics 25 Host Controller Interface (HCI) Provides a command interface to the baseband controller and link manager, and access to hardware status and control registers. Provides a uniform method of accessing the Bluetooth baseband capabilities. exists across 3 sections the Host Transport Layer T L Host Controller Each of the sections has a different role to play in the HCI system. bxyics 26 HCI bxyics 27 HCI Functions The HCI is functionally broken up into 3 separate parts y p p p HCI Firmware (location: Host Controller) HCI Driver (location: Host) Host Controller Transport Layer (location: Intermediate Layers) BluetoothBluetooth-defined Host Controller Transport Layers UART T Transport L Layer RS232 Transport Layer USB Transport Layer p y bxyics 28 Logical Link Control and Adaptation Layer Protocol(L2CAP) Provides connection-oriented and connectionless data connectionservices to upper layer protocols with protocol multiplexing capability, segmentation and reassembly p g p y, g y operation, and group abstractions. The Th L2CAP Specification is defined for only ACL links S ifi i i d fi d f l li k and no support for SCO links is planned. bxyics 29 RFCOMM Emulation of RS232 serial ports over the L2CAP protocol. Supports up to 60 simultaneous connections between two Bluetooth devices. Two device types bxyics 30 Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) bxyics 31 Profiles Generic Access Profile Service Discovery Application Profile Cordless Telephony Profile Intercom Profile I P fil Serial Port Profile Headset P fil H d t Profile DialDial-up Networking Profile bxyics Fax Profile LAN (Local Area Network) Access Profile Generic Object Exchange Profile Object Push P fil Obj P h Profile File Transfer Profile Synchronization P fil S h i ti Profile 32 Resources http://www.bluetooth.com/ http://www bluetooth com/ http://www.palowireless.com/bluetooth IEEE 802 15 standard 802.15 d d bxyics 33 ...
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