BSCI 201 test1_lecture - BSCI 201 test#1 lecture Anatomy...

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BSCI 201 test #1 lecture Anatomy 101 Orientation and directional terms -Superior (cranial)-toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body; above -Inferior (caudal)- away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below -Ventral (anterior)- toward or at the front of the body; in front of -Dorsal (posterior)- toward or at the back of the body; behind -Medial- toward the midline of the body; inner side -Lateral- away from the midline of the body; outer side -Intermediate- between a more medial and more lateral structure -Proximal- closer to the origin of the body part or point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk ex. Elbow is proximal to the wrist -distal- further from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb or the body trunk ex. Knee is distal to the thigh -superficial- toward or at the body surface -deep- away from the body surface, more internal 3 planes and sections -frontal (coronal plane): a vertical cut the divides the anterior and posterior parts-> use this to see heart -saggital plane: a vertical cut that divides the body into right and left parts. A saggital plane that lies exactly in the midline is the median plane. All other saggital planes offset from the midline are parasagittal planes. -transverse of cross sectional: horiztontal cut from right to left, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts body in reference-> what a cadaver looks like, also called anatomical position. {body erect, feet slightly apart, palms face forward, thumbs point away from the body soft organs-> visceral organ (viscera) compartmentalization-> each organ in the body has its own compartment. Imp because it holds the organs in their position and protects the organs against trauma or infection. Tosis (hernia)-> when a structure is out of place, tosis leads to hernia or bulge. brain and spinal cord-> apart of the central nervous system, surrounded by meninges, each surrounding both are different superior thoracic-> respiratory system, heart, esophagus, larynx (voice box), trachea. 2 lungs take up most of this cavity, space between them is called the media steinum. Diaphram splits upper and lower. Abdomino-pelvic cavaity-> digestive, urinary, reproductive organs. Separated by 4 quadrants or 9 regions. -all organs are surrounded by own membranes called serous membranes (ventral cavity), given specific names depending on organ. Serous membrane around heart is
called pericardial sac, pleural sac around lungs, peritoneal sac around abdominal cavity. Physiology 101 Physiology-> the study of the function of the bodys parts. Systemic physiology is the study of the functions of systems in the body. Structure determines function. 11 organ systems-> need to maintain homeostatsis, 10 at least, reproductive not so much Systems: integumentary, nervous, endocrine, lymphatic, respiratory, urinary, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive.

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